This glossary has as its starting point relevant entries in the ‘Index generalis in priores duo fasciculos breviarii Sarum’, Breviarium ad usum Sarum, I:mcccxcix. A glossary is also found in W. H. Rich Jones, Vetus Registrum Sarisberiense Vol. II:159-206. [Items enclosed in square brackets are not part of the Sarum terminology.]
Adaperiat. The first Responsory to the lections of Maccabees (the Sunday after September 27).
Adonay. The first Responsory to the lections of Judith.
Ad te levavi. The first Officium (Introit) of the church year, sung on the First Sunday of Advent.
Agenda mortuorum. A title for ‘Vigilie mortuorum’ found in the Portiforia.
Aggregation. The practice of combining several of the canonical hours into one service. The term does not appear in Sarum sources; however typically the various canonical office of the day were grouped into the early morning set (Matins-Lauds), the fore-noon set (Prime-Terce-Sext-Mass-None) and the afternoon set (Vespers-Compline). The additional offices of the daily office of the Virgin and the office of the dead are also typically aggregated to the groups indicated above.
Alleluya. (1) The chant that precedes (the Sequence and) the Gospel Lesson at Mass outside of Septuagesima-tide. (2) The part of the Alleluya that comes before the Verse.
Almucia, amice. A cap or cowl. ‘Nullus autem clericorum de superiori gradu almutica utatur nisi nigra in choro nec in capitulo. Alii vero clerici nulla utantur omnino de die.’ Consuetudinarium Sarum § 19.
Altar Steps. The several steps immediately in front of the Altar. The Outer Step is the lowest of the steps of the Altar.
Antiphonale. The book containing the music for the Office.
Archam. ark; reliquary.
Aspiciens. The first Responsory at Matins of Advent. Thus a name for the lections of Isaiah, and occasionally the name of the Antiphonale.
Ave Maria. According to SB:mdii. the Ave Maria was introduced into England in 1237 and is not found with its last clause ‘Sancta Maria’ &c. prior to the Reformation except here in the Great Breviary of 1531. The final clause was not officially adopted in the Roman Use until the publication of Breviarium Romanum in 1568. See Catholic Encyclopedia.
[Beltida vii. the ringing-times, or seven hours of prayer (mistranslated sometimes as ‘belt of beads’.)]
Benedicamus Domino. (1) Said at the end of any Office, with a few exceptions. (2) Said at the end of Mass instead of Ite missa est. on all ferial days and vigils (except the vigils of Easter and Pentecost), and in the mass Salus Populi, and in the Mass of the Holy Cross, and on all feasts of thee Lessons without Te Deum and with a Nocturn, and in Lent.
Cantor. (1) a singer. (2) the Precentor. The Cantor or Precentor was in charge of the musical services.
Cantoris. The North side of the Choir, on which the Precentor (Cantor) had his seat. (See Choir side).
Cantus. While the term generally means melody, it is occasionally found in places that seem to imply the introduction of a polyphonic piece (motet) as a substitute for a Sequence, as in daily Masses of St. Mary. (See Noted Missal, Vol. A:10.)
Capitulare. (1) and index to the proper Epistles and Gospels. (2) a book containing the little chapters of the canonical hours, more usually called Collectarius.
Capitulum. (1) the little chapters or short lessons from the Epistles &c. recited in all day hours. (2) the cathedral chapter house. (3) Missa in capitulo. . . . (4) in convent, i.e. all together, but not necessarily in the chapter house.
Cappa. Cope. The black cope was the ordinary dress of the clergy in choir. It was worn over the surplice. The silken cope (of various colours) was worn at Procession and at Mass on great festivals by all the clerks, by Rulers of the Choir, by the singers of the Invitatory at Matins and the Responsory at Vespers; by the Officiant in censing altars, blessing holy water, new fire, etc. by the singers of the Gradual, the Alleluya, the Tract, and the Litany Hymn on Easter Even, and on certain other special occasions.
Choir. (1) the chorus of singers. (2) part of the church where the principal services are sung. Usually ‘Quire’ is used in the English edition to distinguish (2) from (1). (3) in convent, i.e. all together, but not necessarily in the Quire.
Choir Side. The side of the Quire that is the ‘lead’ choir for the week; as opposed to ‘the other side’. The Choir Side normally changes each week, such that ‘Cantoris will be the lead on the first week, and Decani will be the lead on the second week, and so forth.
Choir Step. See Quire Step.
Chorus. see Choir, Quire.
In classicum. ‘together’, Terence Bailey; ‘in a clash’, Divine Worship; “This word was applied to denote the clash or simultaneous ringing of bells. Du Cange explains it “Pulsatio omnium campanarum campanalis,” and his curious article on the word is well worth the reader’s perusal. In English the word clam or clamour is applied to the same thing ; the bells are said to be clammed when they are all pulled off together, so as to give one loud crash or clam with which it is customary to begin, and sometimes to conclude a peal.” The British Magazine and Monthly Register of Religious and Ecclesiastical Information: XXX (1846): 658, n.]
Clericus. A clerk in orders. (including all persons in minor orders as well as in sacred or great orders).
Collatio. The Liber Pastoralis was read in colleges as an alternative for the Vigilie Mortuorum immediately before Compline in Lent. (Crede michi.)
Colectarius, Collectare, Collectaneum, Collectualis liber. contains the collects (Orationes) and usually also the Capitula.
Collect. A prayer. The Sarum Rite normally uses the term Oratio.
[Comes. (1) and earl. (2) Liber Comitis, an Epistolare, strictly this contained only the uncanonical lections as distinct from the Apostolus.]
Commemoratio. [(1) The yearly festival of St. Paul, and of All Souls.] (2) the weekly service in memory of St. Mary on Saturday, and on two other days of the patron saint of the church (festi loci) and of St. Thomas of Canterbury or the diocesan saint.
Commune [sanctorum]. the Common of Saints.
Communio. an Antiphon after the ablutions at Mass. While this is the place of the Communion said by the priest with his ministers, the place of the Communion antiphon sung by the choir is not definitely indicated in the Sarum sources.
Compotus. There are treatises on the Kalendar (de computo ecclesiastico) attributed to Bede, Roger Bacon, &c. and to John de Sacrobosco (Halifax), all Englishmen by birth. The two former are spurious, but there are genuine passages on the subject in the Eccles. Hist. and Opus Majus. De Morgan mentions also, as writers on the subject, John Garland, 1040, his namesake John Garland, 1245, and Roger Yonge, 1150.
Concurrence. When the second Vespers of one feast clashes with the first Vespers of a succeeding feast, these feasts are said to concur.
Confessoris. In Sarum Use the only feasts of a Confessor being neither Bishop nor Abbot are those of Eusebius, Jerome, and the Translation of King Edward.
Consuetudinarium. The book which contains the binding customs of a church or religious house. (also Customary)
In conventu. Service said in chapel, not in choir. But it appears that this often refers to the daily service of the members of the community.
Coram altaris dextrum. The part of the altar to the right hand of the celebrant, the epistle or south side, according to English and ancient use. It was in 1485 that the Roman Pontifical ordered that the terms ‘right’ and ‘left’ should thenceforth be taken with reference to the figure of the crucifix, so adoption of the sense of dexter in heraldry.
[Coucher. A service-book perhaps for Compline or prayers at bed-time (modus pie decumbendi). Some connect the name with the way in which the book lay open on a desk. Mr. Maskell identifies it with the modern Vesperale.]
Crede michi. The title of the second appendix to the Directorium sacerdotum.
Customarium Sarum. The Consuetudinary or register of rubrics for the Use of that Cathedral, by Richard le Poer (1217-1229). (See Consuetudinarium.)
Decani. The south side of the Choir (the Other Side of the Choir), on which the Dean had his seat. (See also Choir side).
Dedicatio Ecclesie. In October; not always identical with the Festum loci or Festum sancti loci or Feast of the Title of a Church.
Defensorum Directorii. The first appendix to the Directorium sacerdotum.
Deus omnium. The first responsory to the lections of Regum, thus the first Sunday after Trinity, or whenever the lections of Kings was commenced.
Dextrum cornu altaris. The south side of the Altar in English rubrics.
Directorium sacerdotum. Directory for Priests, by Clement Maydston. Eleven editions printed between 1487 and 1508.
Dirige. Matins of the dead, so called from the commencement of the first antiphon of that service. Hence the English ‘dirge’.
Diurnale. (Journal) The day hours (including Matins, except the lessons and their responsories?). One was printed in 1512 and there had been two preceding editions.
Domine ne in ira. The second Sunday after Epiphany, so called from the responsory to the first lesson at Matins.
Dominica in albis. Sunday in White. The First Sunday after Easter. also Low Sunday.
Duplicia. Double feasts (of four classes, principalis, majora, minora, inferiora). It would appear that the term is suggestive of the frequent presence of both first and second vespers on such feasts. The term seems not to be related to the idea of ‘doubling the antiphons to Benedictus or Magnificat, i.e. sung through to the end before (as it always was sung in full after) the canticle.
‘These are the Greater Double Feasts [through the year (1519:50v.)] in which at First Vespers the whole Antiphon on the Psalm Magnificat is completely sung through before the intonation of the Psalm : namely the First Day of the Nativity of the Lord, the Day of the Epiphany, the Day of the Purification of Blessed Mary, the First Day of Easter, [1519:51r. omits ‘primus dies pasche’.] the Day of the Ascension of the Lord, the First Day of Pentecost, the Feast of the Holy Trinity, the Feast of Corpus Christi, [the Feast of the Visitation of Blessed Mary (1519:51r)]. [the Feast of Relics [of the Church (1519:51r.)], the Feasts of the Assumption and of the Nativity of Blessed Mary, the Feast of the Dedication of the Church, the Feast of All Saints, and the Feast of the Place. (from rubrics for Christmas).
Duty-roster. Tabula. The tablets upon which were written the names of those responsible for specific duties to be performed during the week in the liturgical services.
Easter Sepulchre. An arched recess generally in the north wall of the chancel, in which from Good Friday to Easter day were deposited the crucifix and the host (in a pyx) in commemoration of Christ’s entombment and resurrection. The sepulchre could be portable and made of wood, or could be a permanent stone recess. At Salisbury Cathedral an Easter Sepulchre remains in the eastern part of the Bishop Audley Chapel erected in 1526. Presumably prior to this there was an earlier stone sepulchre or, in the earliest times, a wooden sepulchre.
Ember Days. Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday in the Third week of Advent and at three other seasons of the year. See Quatuor temporum.
Enchiridion. another name for what was called in England the Primer; Such were printed in 1528 and 1530.
Estatem. the summer, meaning the period from the Sunday Deus omnium until Advent, which comprises the second half of the liturgical year.
Evangelium. A Gospel reading. (In York Use a gospel canticle: Benedictus, Magnificat, or Nunc dimittis.)
Exaltare psalmum. i.q. intonare, to present the commencement of the psalm. really to present the commencement of the psalm-tone; particularly with reference to re-establishing the proper pitch within a series of psalms on one tone.
Excellentior persona. The senior person in Quire. The four persons highest in precedence at Sarum were the Dean, the Precentor, the Chancellor, and the Treasurer. If none of these were present, then the highest ranking canon.
Exequiale. a book of the Dirige, Hours and Masses of the Dead.
Extensa voce. High voice, for reciting tones, distinguished from the low pitch of ‘submissa voce’.
Exulatus. a banished saint.
Farsura, cum. (Fr. brodé), with an interpolation varying according to the season or occarions. An instance of this may be seen in the Gloria in excelsis.
Fast, the. Capitalized, this refers to the great Fast of Lent.
Feria. any day in the week not being a Sunday or other feast day.
Feria ii. iii. etc. Monday etc. The special commemorations attached to the several days of the week are indicated by the subjects of the woodcuts in Brev. 1531 in the Psalter at Vespers as follows:
Dominica. The ever blessed Trinity. (Missa de SS. Trinitate).
Feria ii. The holy Angels. (Missa de Angelis.)
Feria iii. The holy Church (Missa Salus populi).
Feria iv. The Holy Spirit (Missa de S. Spiritu.)
Feria v. The Body and Blood of Christ (Missa Corporis Christi).
Feria vi. The Passion of Christ (Missa de Cruce)
Sabbato. The Incarnation (Missa de B. Maria).
Feriales psalmi. the regular psalms of the day (whether Sudnay or a week-day). These were not changed in Sarum Vespers of Saints, except in those of BVM and through her octaves, First vespers of Festi Loci, Second vespers of St. Anne and Apostles, and both vespers of Relics and All Saints.
Festum loci. The Feast of the Title of a Church. To be more precise, the feast of the local saint whose relics were enshrined in the church. At Salisbury the cathedral is dedicated to St. Mary, but the feast of the place is St. Osmund (from 1457).
Forma. (or Gradus) Thee were three tiers of seats in the Choir at Sarum. The highest (Superior Grade) was occupied by the clergy. The two lower ones were Secunda Forma and Prima Forma). The superior grad and second form were choir stalls, but the first form had, if anything, only benches.
Formulas. refers to the seats which were occasionally kissed at the end of an Office.
Genuflectione. Kneeling; appears to be sometimes synonymous with prostratione, prostration.
Gradale. (1) The resposory to the Epistle lesson at Mass (2) the part of the Gradale which comes before the Verse. (3) Gradale, Gradulae, Gradualis liber, Cantatorium, the early English ‘Ad te levavi’, or grail. A service-book of introits (officia), graduals, offertories, and communions (the scriptural or Gregorian portion of the choral part of the missal.)
[Gradus. Scala virtutis, liber a sancto Ambrosio compositus. A book to be read by those who did not possess a copy of Haymo.]
Greater Double Feast. includes the two highest classes: Principal Double Feasts and Major Double Feasts.
Hebdomadarius. a person appointed to fill some office or perform some duty throughout a week.
Historia. Lection. (1) a series of lessons from scripture (2) the beginning of a series of lessons from one book of the Bible. These historia took their names form the commencement of the responsory to the first lesson contained in them. (3) ‘ordo officii, seu potius ejusdem ordinis declaratio.’ (C. Seager) thus we find:
Historia communis. common of saints
Historia festorum, proper of saints.
Historia unius martyris &c.
Commune unius Martyris &c.
Historia propria (applied to the lessons and more particularly their responsories. –Seager)
Historia inchoetur cum memoria.
Homilia, Homelia, Omelia. The exposition of the day’s Gospel, read at the third nocturn at matins on Sundays and on some feasts. (Some feasts have no homily, but instead more ‘historia’; ferias have no homily.
Homilarius. book containing the expositions of the gospels.
Hore. (1) the seven canonical hours of prayer. (The proposed times shown are ideal rather than fixed.)
Matins (with Lauds) at dawn. Betrayal
Prime. 6. a.m. Birth, Pilate.
Terce, 9. a.m. Ad pastores, Ecce homo.
Sext, noon. Magi, Crucifixion.
None, 3. p.m. Presentation, death.
Vespers, 6. p.m. Flight, descent.
Compline. 9 p.m. Coronation of Mary, entombment.
With these it was common to associate in later devotions the course of the Saviour’s incarnation or passion as indicated above. The latter is indicated by the subjects of the woodcuts prefixed to the several hours in the great folio Breviary of 1531, as well as in the verses ‘Patris Sapientia’.
(2) the primer in Latin.
Horns of the altar. (Cornua). The dextrum cornu was the right or south side, and the sinistrum cornu the left or north side. [But it must be remembered that at Rome since 1485 the case has been inverted, and that regulating the terms by aid of the crucifix, the right hand means the north, and the left hand means the south side. This note presumably refers specifically to St. Peter’s, Rome, where the building faces west, not east; since Vatican II the altar is oriented so that the right side is to the south.–ed.]
Hymnarius. Liber hymnorum. Book of Hymns.
Ima voce. A high voice.
In monte Oliveti. Historia in cena Domini. Maundy Thursday.
In principio. Septuagesima. named for the reading of Genesis.
Introit. see Officium.
Inventio. A feast in memory of the discovery of relics of the true cross; similarly of St. Stephen.
Invitatory. Psalm 94 sung at the beginning of Matins. Invitatories were classified as Simple, Double, and Triple. According to Warren the type of Invitatory essentially indicated how many were to sing the verses. Warren further notes that on all Principal Double Feasts it was sung by four Rulers of the Choir. (According to SB, there was an elaborate scheme of recitation depending on the type of Invitatory (see the index to SB:III. This would appear to be in error.)
Laudes. (‘after-song’) the service of praise (or more properly the Ps. cxlviii-cl at this service) sung at daybreak (strictly), immediately after matins.
Lectio. (Lesson) a single reading at Matins. (compare Legenda).
Lectionarius. The book of lessons from scripture, said to have been compiled by Jerome.
Legenda. 1) A book containing the lessons at Matins. 2) A group of lessons or readings at Matins. (that are to be read on the first available day.)
Legendarius. book containing the conversatio Confessorum.
Lesser Double Feast. Minor Double Feast. Not to be confused with Inferior Double, which is the lowest level of Double.
Levavi. (Ps. cxx.) [a devotion] said at Sarum after Prime and Compline [before exiting the chancel].
Levita. a deacon.
Magno Tonali. the Great Tonary; the Sarum Tonary.
Majora Duplicia. Major Double. ‘non sunt tante solennitatatis in ecclesia sicut sunt festa principalia : tamen quod abstinendum ab operibus servilibus sunt ejusdem dignitatis.’ (Lyndwood Provinciale). The lesser of the Greater Doubles; the second highest rank of feast.
Manipulus Curatorum. a guide for parish priests, printed by W. de Worde, R. Pynson, &c.
Manuale. (Rituale, Agenda, Sacramentale, Pastorale, Institutio), liber in quo continentur omnia que spectant ad sacramentorum et sacramentalium ministrationem : item benedictiones tam fontium quam aliorum. A book of the occasional offices.
Mandatum. the Maundy.
Martyrologium. a book expanded from the Kalendar, and used in the Capitular service after Prime.
Matutinas. Matins. Morning, thus the office or offices occurring early in the day. The term Matins refers to the night office, but also to Lauds, or to the combination of the two. Or it may be said that ‘Matins’ refers to the office of Matins, but ‘matins’ refers to the early morning, the time at which Matins-Lauds is sung.
Matutinale. the office book (1) for matins (2) for the morrow or early mass.
Memoria. Memorial (or Memory). A Commemoration or Suffrage. In the Office a memorial consists of an antiphon, a versicle, and prayer (collect) said at the end of Lauds and Vespers. such as
de omnibus sanctis
de B. Maria
de sancto loci
de Spiritu Sancto
de Corpore Christi
de feria [minus previlegiata]
similarly, de aliquo sancto or de octavis, whenever these were to be observed by ‘Memoria tantum’.
The antiphons are those for Magnificat or Benedictus at the corresponding feasts. The Versicles are those that follow the Hymn at the same offices.
Memorials can be solemn (i.e. sung aloud) or sub silentio (in silence).
A memorial at Mass consists of the Prayer (Collect), Secret, and Postcommunion from the Mass being commemorated. Such memorial prayers are said, in order, following the Prayer, Secret, and Postcommunion of the Mass being celebrated.
In cases, such as the Ember Days, which have more than one prayer during the readings, the memorials follow the last of those prayers.
Missa. Mass. (1) any service (2) the altar service.
Missa Magna. High mass.
Missa in Capitulo. Capitular Mass. The (daily) mass which the chapter are to attend as a body; not a mass in the chapter house.
Missale. At least 60 editions of the Sarum Missal appear to have been printed between 1487 and 1557.
Modesta voice. This appears to be equivalent to ‘submissa voce’ that is on a low reciting tone. But it may also refer to a quiet voice, as in the pronunciation of the Blessing before the lesson.
Natale. (1) Christmas Day (2) the saint’s martyrdom or birthday to eternal life.
Necrologium. Annalis, liber benefactorum commemorandorum. (Annals, book commemorating benefactors.)
Neuma. (Pneuma) 1) any melisma 2) the standard melismas added to the end of the final antiphon of each Nocturn, to the end of the Te Deum, to the end of the final Antiphon on the Psalms at Lauds and Vespers, and to the end of the Antiphon to the Benedictus and Magnificat, and to the end of the Antiphon to the Quicunque vult at Prime. The Neume are omitted entirely from Passion Sunday through to the Octave of Easter, and from the Office of the Dead. The older name is ‘jubilus’.
Nocturnus. Night. Refers to the 1-3 portions of Matins that contain the psalmody and readings.
Non cantando. ‘Not sung’ i.e. read (sung) on a single pitch rather than a melody or melodic formula.
None. The ninth hour; the Office of Nones which theoretically occurs at 3 p.m.
Numerale. (1) the early English Directorium or calendar of occurrences, of feasts, &c. [(2) a work on theological numbers by W. de Montibus.]
[Obsequiale. a name used in Southern Germany for the Manuale or the Benedictionale.]
Occurrence. When two feasts fall on the same day.
Octava. The eighth day of a week’s festival.
Octave. The full week of a festival.
Offertorium (Offertory). (1) The anthem at the first oblation in the Mass. (2.) The Offertory-Veil in which the Subdeacon holds the Paten from the conclusion of the prayer Offerimus, till the end of the Pater noster. (Pugin, Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament:168.)
Officium. (1) the Introit at Mass. The Mozarabic and Dominican Rites use the term ‘Officium’. (2) the part of the Officium that comes before the Psalm-verse. (3) the service (4) duty.
Officium parvum. ‘Little Office’. The Hours of our Lady, dating from about the 7th century, revised by Peter Damian A.D. 1056. Matins and Vespers of St. Mary were said in choir after those of the day; the other hours of the Virgin after the corresponding day hours. This said service is in contradistinction to the ‘Plenum servitium’ or ‘Full Office’ of St. Mary sung on Saturday or else another convenient weekday.
Other Side. [Decani. The south side of the Choir. B-1 matins suggests the opposite.] The ‘Other’ side is opposite to the ‘Choir’ side, which is the lead side; the assignment of these two sides alternate, week by week, such the the Cantoris (north) leads in the first week, and the Decani (south) leads in the second week.
Omelia. Homily, Homelia.
Orarium. (1) a title for the Enchridion or Prymer of 1530. (2) at title of the Latin part of Henry VIII’s Prymer AD 1546.
Oratio. Prayer, also known (but rarely in the Sarum Rite) as a Collect. ‘Oratio’ is used in the Mozarabic and Dominican Rites.
Oratio Dominica. Pater noster; the Lord’s Prayer.
Ordinale. Liber in quo ordinatur modus dicendi et solemnizandi officium divinum. ‘The book in which is ordered the manner of saying and solemnizing the Divine Office.’ This book is a guide to the content of each day’s liturgy.
O sapientia. The first O Antiphon in the days before Christmas. December 16 in the Sarum Kalendars, one day earlier that the Roman kalendar, since the Sarum Rite contains an additional O Antiphon.
Outer Step. The lowest or first step of the Altar.
Pro pace eccelsie. A capitular service (or devotion) said after Lauds and Compline before exiting the chancel.
Panis. ‘Bread’, i.e. the host.
Passionale. (1) Passionarius, liber in quo sunt Passiones martyrum. (2) liber Passionem Christi ex historia evangelica complectens.
Passionem Domini. can refer to the First Sunday in the Passion of the Lord, Passion Sunday, or to the two-week period before Easter.
Pax. (1) Kiss of peace or (2) Osculatorium or Pax-brede (Peace-board), the small tablet handed round to be kissed as a substitute for the ancient pesonal kiss of peace during the mass.
Persone principales. Persone principales sunt Decanus, Cantor, Cancellarius, Thesaurarius. ‘The principal persons [of the cathedral] are the Dean, the Cantor, the Chancellor, and the Treasurer.’
Peto Domine. the first Responsory to the historia of Tobit.
Pie. Ordinatio de Tempore, or Directorium, rules for the adaptation for the services of each week according to the 35 varieties of the almanac. In the Breviarium 1531 the Pie is interleaved with the various weeks and seasons of the Temporale.
Placebo. Vespers of the Dead (see Dirige)
Plenilunium. the fifteenth day of the calendar moon is the calendar full moon.
Plenum servitium. The weekly Saturday Full Service of the Blessed Virgin (or that of the Patron Saint}. When the Full Service of S. Mary is sung the daily service of St. Mary (Officium parvum) is omitted.
Penitentiale. A guide for confessors.
Placebo. Vespers of the Dead.
Pneuma. see Neuma.
Pontificale. Liber ministerialis, that part of the Sacramentary which contains rites peculiar to a Bishop.
Per Populum. ‘Quedam sunt festa duplicia quod officium divinum dicendum in Ecclesia per clericos, non tamen quod audiendum per laicos. Patet exemplum in festis quattuor Doctorum; item S. Augustini Anglorum Apostoli, S. Edwardi Regis, et aliorum hujusmodi.’
Portiforium, porthors, porthos, or poros, the English name for the smaller breviaries (convenient especially for a travelling cleric).
Postcommunio. A Prayer, or prayers said after the Communio at Mass.
Precentor. see Cantor.
Presbytery. The part of the Chancel east of the Quire, between the Quire and the High Altar.
Presbytery step. Between the Choir Step and the Altar Steps, to the east of the north and south choir doors.
Prima. Prime the service of the first hour, theoretically at 6. a.m.
Prima forma. The front of the three rows on each side of the Quire.
Primer. Prymer, the Hore, often in an English or partly English form. It typically contains Matins and the Hours of the Virgin, Evensong and Compline; the Seven penitential psalms and the Litany, the Placebo and Dirige, commendations, the fifteen psalms (songs of degrees) Lord’s prayer, Ave Maria, creed, commandments, seven deadly sins, with the addition often of a Kalendar and of other psalms, hymns, and prayers for the use of the laity.
Principal Double Feast. The highest level of feast.
Processionale. liber in quo continentur usitata in processionibus ecclesiasticis quandocunque fiendis.
Prolatio. The utterance, e.g. of a suffrage of the Litany.
Prose. Another name for Sequence (Warren). This term typically appears in the Breviary but not in the Missal.
Prosternendo. seems often to indicate a kneeling posture.
Prostratione. A profound bowing; appears sometimes to be synonymous with genuflection. It would seem sometimes to indicate bowing from a kneeling position.
Psalmus ipsum. The psalm which begins with the same words as the Antiphon last cited. The first words, having been already intoned, are not repeated. The intonation of the psalm-tone is omitted in such cases.
Psalterium. (1) the Psalms of David (2) the Psalter containing the psalms arranged according to liturgical course together with hymns and certain ordinary chapters, anthems, &c.
Pulpitum. (1) An Ambo from which the Epistle and Gospel were sometimes read at Mass, and which was generally located on the rood loft or choir screen. (Warren) This point is disputed. Reading from the screen might facilitate hearing the sacred texts clearly both inside and outside of the choir. It might by its elevation symbolize the Word of God; also (2) the screen itself is often referred to as the pulpitum. ‘The substantial foundations of the pulpitum at Old Sarum sometime before 1139 indicate a heavy, fourteen-foot wide stone structure supporting a loft reached by stairs. It probably had two separate walls containing an internal chamber over fourteen feet wide, just like later pulpita.’ Ben Nilson, Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England (Woodbridge: the Boydell Press, 1998):88.
Quadragesima. Forty days; refers to the forty-day fast preceding Easter. Quadragesima may refer to the period as a whole, or to the first Sunday of Lent in particular. Likewise when something is said to begin at Quadragesima, either Ash Wedensday or the First Sunday in Lent may be intended.
Quatuor temporum. The four seasons. The Ember Days. Four seasons of the year reserved for fasting and prayer, comprising Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday.
The Ember Days were fixed under Pope Urban II, 1095 as the first week of Lent, the Week of Pentecost, the week following the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, and the third week of Advent.
In the Gradual and Missal they appear in the First week of Lent; the week of Pentecost, and following the 23rd week after Trinity (placed there because their calendar location will depend upon the particular year). They are treated as ferias; the only liturgical requirements for the office are the Prayer and the kneeling.
Quintapartita Letania. five of each class of saints are invoked therein.
Quire (choir). (1) the place where the principal services are sung. (2) the chorus of singers (‘Choir is normally used in the English edition to distinguish (2) from (1).
Quire Step. in the centre of the Quire, towards the east end, but before the bishops’s throne.
Ratio Baptizandi. Ordo Baptizandi, &c. Sarum Occasional Offices, printed in 1603 and 1632 at Douay, and as late as 1686 in London (Harry Hills).
Rectores chori. Rulers of the Choir. Persons appointed to act as rulers on festivals: two on simple feasts, four on double feasts.
Regimen Chori. At solemn services there were four rulers of the choir or chanters to lead the music of the choir at Vespers, Matins, and Mass.
Reliquum tempus. id quod extra tempus Paschale; all the seasons excepting from Easter to Pentecost.
Responsio. [versus or versiculi] strictly, or originally, confined to the response to a Versicle, e.g. ante Laudes, after a hymn, or in a Memorial. Latterly used indifferently with Responsorium.
Responsoriale. pars Antiphonarii que continet responsoria.
Responsorium. The respond to a lesson at Matins, or to a little chapter. According to Dr. Seager the Response to the Versicle in a Memorial or after a Hymn was strictly called Responsio.
Royal Prophet. King David.
Rulers of the Choir. There may be two or four rulers of the choir on special days. On Double Feasts there are four rulers. See ‘Rectores chori’.
Sacramentarium. The mass-book and order of the other sacraments.
Sacrificium. The bread and wine for consecration at Mass.
Saint Michael on Mount Tumba. It is called St. Michael’s on the Tomb, or at the Tombs, because two mountains are called Tombs, from their resemblance to the rising or covering of graves. On one of these, three hundred feet high, which the tide makes an island at high water, stands this famous monastery . . .
Salus populi. the votive mass for Tuesdays.
Saluatio Angelica. the Ave Maria.
Salve. The Mass of the B.V.M. on Saturday, and daily from the Purification to Advent.
Sanctorale. (Sanctoral) the proper of saints.
Sanctus loci. The titular saint of the Church, sometimes identical with its feast of dedication. Note however that the saint of the place may not be the same as the titular saint. At Salisbury, from1457, the saint of the place was Osmund, but the title of the church was St. Mary.
Secreta. The prayer super oblata, the prayer of the secreti or faithful, ex missa fidelium.
Secretum Misse. the canon or ‘still mass’.
Secunda forma. The middle of the three rows on each side of the Quire.
Secundarii. The two rulers of the choir not taking the principal part. They were not always of the second form.
[Semiduplex festum. (see simplicia)]
Septiformis letania. A litany in which each group consists of seven saints, and so with other numbers.
Septuagesima. The third Sunday before Lent; also the period beginning with this day and continuing throughout Lent.
Sepulchrum Domini. see Easter Sepulchre.
Sequentia. Words or prose set to the prolonged notes of the repeated alleluia before the Gospel, which became long compositions in the hands of Alcuin, Notker Balbulus, &c. (See also Prose).
Sermologus. Liber sermonum hiemalium et estivalium (used at the second nocturn at matins [on some occasions].)
Sext. The services of the sixth hour, strictly at noon. In the old ordinal sext normally fell after the high mass; in the new ordinal before the high mass.
Si bona. The first Responsory to the historia of Job.
Simplicia. Simple feasts [on which the commencements only of the Antiphons were sung before their Psalms]–this is inaccurate, as only on a handful of feasts of the highest rank was the full antiphon sung before the Magnificat only-ed. Simples were classified according to their invitatories (single, duple, triple). See Tabula de festorum divisione.
[Simplicia cum regimine chori. (called in the Lincoln, Hereford and Roman uses ‘semiduplicia festa’) All simples with a triple invitatory, and some of those with a double invitatory, which had both vespers but did not double their Antiphons.–this categorization does not apply to Sarum-ed.]
Sine expositione. Without exposition. Feasts in which no Lesson at Matins expounds upon the Gospel Lesson of the Mass. The Feast of St. Agatha is an example. In accord with a stronger Biblical emphasis, the Breviarium Romanum 1568 does not have feasts ‘sine expositione’.
Sine nota. ‘Without note’. The usual meaning is ‘recto tono’, that is chanted on a single tone rather than using a melody.
Solennia. Solemn, as opposed to sub silentio, meaning that a Memorial, for example, will be made with aloud and with musical note.
[Speciale. A book containing the order of private mass. This definitio, taken from Maskell, Dissertation on Service Books:cxxxiii, applies only to certain continental texts. Nevertheless, as Maskell continues: ‘I have no hesitation in including it among the ancient service books of the English Church, on the authority of the Registrum S. Osmundi. in which among the inventories occurs, fol. 73, “Quidem novus liber, continens missas privatas”.’]
Spirula. [Spicula] palma de terra sancta facta. This object is used at matins on Ember Wednesday in the third week of Advent. Its precise nature is not known, but see the ‘Companion’ for a full discussion.
Stallo. Choir Stall. forma.
Submissa voce. Low voice, distinguished from the high voice. See in particular the indications at the opening versicles of Matins on the first Sunday in Advent.
Succentor. Assistant or deputy to the precentor.
Summer. The second half of the year, covering the Temporale from Trinity through to the end of the year. (Estatem.)
Superiore gradu. Superior gradus. The Third and highest of the three levels in the Choir, those seated in the Quire nearest the north and south walls. Beside the dignitaries and canons, vicarii presbyteri et pauci admodum diaconi que etate et moribus exigentibus in supriori gradu tolerantur ex dispensatione.
Surplice. The ordinary dress of the clergy, and of lay clerks, in choir. Over it the clergy usually wore the choir cope &c.
Tabula. (1) the bede-roll or list of persons to be prayed for (compare ‘diptych’) (2) the tablet of wax-brede on which the names of officiants and singers (or readers) for the week were written, by the Succentor (and Vice-Chancellor), by order of the Precentor (and Chancellor). The list was read in Chapter on Sundays and Festivals after the lectio in capitulo.
Temporale. Proprium de tempore. (Temporal) the proper service of the seasons as distinguished from the Sanctorale.
Tempus breve post octavas Epiphanie. When there were not more than two Sundays. It was called ‘equale’ when there were three, and prolixum when there were four or five. Similarly the Trinity season (Deus omnium) was called breve, equale, or prolixum according as it contained respectively 22 or 23 , 24 or 25, or 26 or 27 Sundays.
Terce. The service of the third hour, properly at 9. a.m. At Salisbury terce was normally followed immediately by the high mass in earlier times, and by sext in later times.
Thesaurius. Treasurer. One of the four persone principales in the Cathedral Chapter.
Tonale. Cantorinus, liber de tonis seu cantu. Book of Tones or Melodies used for instruction in the theory of chant, and in the characteristics of each of the eight Modes or Tones. (Sarum Tonary).
Torches. large tapers.
Translatio. (1) The feast of those saints whose remains were removed to a shrine after their burial, in memory of such solemn removal, viz. Nicholas; Richard, Bishop; Edward, King and Martyr; Thomas, Martyr; Martin, Bishop; Benet, Swithun, &c; Osmund, Cuthbert, Edward, King and Confessor; Etheldreda, and Erkenwald. (2) The transference of a feast occurring on another feast, or in certain season, to the first vacant day.
Trincenalis dies. id quod tricesima, the last day of the trental, the thirtieth day of commemorating one who has died.
Tringintale. (1) a trental, the office of the dead continued for thirty days. The great Trental of St. Gregory consists of masses contained in the missal. (2) id quod tricenalis.
Troperium, Tropalis, Trophanarius, a troper or service-book containing the non-Gregorian, non-scriptural, portions of the Missal, the tropoi or farsings to the Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Alleluya, Offertory, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. The commencements of the intermediate Graduals, Tracts, Alleluyas, Verses, Offertories, and Communions were incidentally noted.
Venitare. liber in quo descriptus psalmus cum notis musicis Venite exultemus Domino &c. quo matutine incipiuntur. A book of invitatories.
Versicularius. liber contines versus qui canuntur in ecclesia.
Versiculus. The verse followed by a respond (strictly Reponsio) at the commencement of a service, or after a Hymn, in Preces or in a Memorial.
Versiculus Responsorii. more strictly Versus Responsorii, the Verse of a Responsory.
Versiculus sacerdotalis. versiculus ante laudes, the variable versicle said by the priest before the commencement of Lauds, corresponding with the invariable V. Domine labia of Matins and the V. Converte nos of Compline.
Versus. (1) the Verse of a Psalm or Hymn (2) the Verse of the Responsory to a Lesson (3) in later books the same as Versiculus.
Vestimentarium. Presumably a Vestry. the word appears only in the printed Graduals, describing the vesting of the singers for the Alleluya at Mass.
Vidi Dominum. The first Responsory to the historia of Ezekiel. The first Sunday after October 28.
Vigilie Mortuorum. Vigils of the Dead. ‘wakes for the dead’, Dr. Rock.
Virginale. A book of prayers, psalms, hymns, five joys, &c. in honour of the blessed Virgin Mary.
Virgo. This title appears to be applied also to matrons (e.g. S. Perpetua, as well as S. Felicitas in the Pie). In strict Sarum use there was no office for matrons, though one (non Sarum) was printed in several Breviaries and Portiforia (see for example Breviary-Psalter:1544-Psalterium:92v); but the following married women were reckoned as virgins, Bathildis, Perpetua, Felicitas the handmaid, Crescentia, Julitta, Anne, and Sabina; beside Etheldreda and Cuthburga who took the vow of continence. Mary Magdalen, penitent, also borrows from the Common of Virgins. The Legend of A.D. 1518 has two sets of common lessons Plurimarum Virginum, but see the Psalter p. 457.
Voce extensa, extenta. indcates a high voice.
Voce submissa. indicates a low voice.
Vultum tuum. The mass of the B.V.M. daily from Christmas Day to the Purification.
Yma voce. A high voice.
Zodiac. The signs of the Zodiac are entered on the 9th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, or 16th days of each month in the Kalendar