Companion to Missal-A: Advent-Quinquagesima


The centre of the page contains the device of the printer, B. Rembolt. The stamps indicate that this copy belongs to the British Museum.

Preceding the Kalendar itself, the 1513 Missal contains only this table and the instructions that follow.

The following images from the Computus of Anianus contain the text “A b c sunt extra” &c., demonstrating how these instructions relate to computus with the hand.
anianus 48
Anianus, Computus cum commento, 1488, Lyons:47. © 2009 by Erwin Tomash and Michael R. Williams. All rights reserved.

anianus 47
Anianus, Computus cum commento, 1488, Lyons:48. © 2009 by Erwin Tomash and Michael R. Williams. All rights reserved.

The following example includes the relevant text as well.

The titles to the months form a verse:

Poculus Janus amat : Et Februus algeo clamat.
Martius arua fodit [de vite superflua demit] : Aprilis florida nutrit.
Ros et flos nemorum : Majo sunt fomes amorum.
Dat Junius fena : Julio resecatur avena.
Augustus spicas : September conterit vuas.
Seminat October. : Spoliat virgulta November.
Querit habere cibum porcum mactando December.

The bracketed phrase, which exceeds the metre, is not found in all sources.

The fourth line of each month is a series of couplets. These are the ‘Egyptian Days’.

January: Prima dies mensis et septima truncat ut ensis.
February: Quarta subit mortem : prosternit tertia fortem.
March: Primus mandentem disrumpit : quarta bibentem.
April: Denus et undenus est mortis vulnere plenus.
May: Tertius occidit : et septimus ora relidit.
June: Denus pallescit : quindenus federa nescit.
July: Tredecimus mactat Julii : denus labefactat.
August: Prima necat fortem : perditque secunda cohortem.
September: Tertia Septembris et denus fert mala membris.
October : Tertius et denus est sicut mors alienus.
November: Scorpius est quintus, et tertius est nece cinctus.
December: Septimus exanguis virosus denus et anguis.

The ‘Egyptian Days’ (dies Aegyptiaci) are two days in each month that signify bad luck or ill omen : January 1 and 25, February 4 and 26, March 1 and 28, April 10 and 20, May 3 and 25, June 10 and 16, July 13 and 22, August 1 and 30, September 3 and 21, October 3 and 22, November 5 and 28, and December 7 and 22.

In the English Performing version the translations of the verses at the end of each month are taken from the Appendix of Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, trans. (as Code of Health of the School of Salernum) John Ordronaux (Philadelphia: Lippincott & Co., 1871). 149 ff.  There appear to be many different forms that these Latin verses take.  The English translations do not always follow literally the texts as they appear in the Sarum sources, yet they maintain their spirit.   In the English Scholarly version the translations attempt a more literal rendering.

February: In the Breviary Kalendar ‘Sol in piscibus‘ appears two days later, on Feb 11. The translation of Saint Fredeswide does not appear in the Kalendar of the 1531 Breviary; it may be that its inclusion here has pushed ‘Sol in piscibus‘ to the earlier line.

March 16: ‘Introitus Noe in archam‘ appears a day later in the Breviary K alendar.
March 17: S. Patrick does not appear in the Breviary Kalendar. While there are propers for S. Patrick in the Sarum Missal, there is no observance of S. Patrick in the Breviary. The shift of Noe to the earlier day may be due to the introduction of Patrick; compare February 11 above.

April: In the Breviary Kalendar ‘Sol in Tauro‘ appears on April 12.

May 3: The Memorial of the Martyrs is not indicated in the Breviary Kalendar.
May 11: Primum Pent. is indicated here in the Breviary Kalendar.
May 19: Here the Breviary Kalendar explains that the Feasts of Ss. Dunstan, Aldelm, Augustine, and Barnabas will have three Lessons if they fall before Pentecost (i.e. within the festive season of Eastertide), but nine lessons if they fall after Pentecost (i.e. in ‘ordinary’ time).
May 24: The Feast of the Holy Saviour does not appear in the Breviary Kalendar. There are no propers for this Feast in the Missal or in the Breviary, unless the Feast of the Icon (Image) of the Saviour be celebrated here, which Feast has no date assigned in the Sarum Kalendars.

July 2: The Memorial of the Martyrs is not indicated in the Breviary Kalendar.
July 6: A Triple Invitatory is indicated in the Breviary Kalendar.
That the Feast of Relics is located in relation to the Translation of S. Thomas becomes awkward when commemoration of S. Thomas is stricken from the Kalendars in 1537. In the 1519 Missal published by Jacobi Cousin (EEBO) ‘nonas julii’ has been added by hand to correct the rubric.

August 13: S. Hippolitus appears as three Lessons in the Breviary Kalendar. Presumably this was the case before the introduction of the Feast of the Most Holy Name of Jesus. In order to accomodate both the Octave of the Holy Name and the Feast of S. Hippolitus, the rubric of the Breviary indicates nine lessons; three from the Common of Many Martyrs, three from the Octave of the Holy Name, and three from the Feast of S. Hippolitus.
August 16: ‘Sol in Virgine. Equinoctium.’ These entries appear on August 12 in Breviary Kalendar.
August 28: A Double Invitatory is indicated in the Breviary Kalendar.

Sepember 4: ‘nisi facte in xl.’ does not appear in the Breviary Kalendar, but does appear in the rubrics of the Sanctorale.
September 14: In the Breviary Kalendar ‘Sol in libra‘ appears on September 12.

Blessing of Salt and Water.
Prayer: Exorciso te creatura salis.
The reference is to IV Kings (II Kings) 2:19-22, where the prophet Elisha casts salt on the waters at Jericho, thereby cleansing them.

Asperges me Domine. Ps. 50:9, 3.

Vidi aquam egredientem. after Ezekiel 47:2; Ps. 105:1.

V. Ostende nobis. Ps. 84:8.

[Bidding Prayers: Bidding of the Beads]
The Processionale:14 indicates that on Sundays, Double Feasts excepted, and not on the sixth day of Christmas nor on the Feast of St. Silvester if it falls on a Sunday, and not on Palm Sunday, the Bidding Prayers (Bidding of the Beads) follow this Procession–except in parish churches, where the Bidding of the Beads takes place ‘after the Gospel and the Offertory’. Sarum Processionale 1528:5v. Unfortunately ‘after the Gospel and the Offertory’ is ambiguous! Adrian Fortescue, The Mass (1915):295 takes it to mean after the Gospel; Nick Sandon, The Use of Salisbury I (1984):4 takes it to mean after the Offertory. Daniel Rock, The Church of our Fathers II (1905):292 and 294 equivocates. Fortescue, however, also suggests that directly following ‘Oremus’ (this edition, p. 24) is the place where, historically, the ‘Prayers of the Faithful’ belonged: ‘This beginning without a continuation remains as a relic, and an indication of the place of the old prayers of the faithful.’ (Op. cit.:296.). But the ‘Oremus’ appears directly before the offertory, not after! In The Book of Common Prayer, 1552 and 1662, the ‘Prayer for the Church Militant’ appears directly after the Offertory Verse. The weight of argument, together with the logical flow of the Mass, places the parish Bidding of the Beads directly after the Offertory chant, and before the prayer ‘Suscipe Sancta Trinitas’.

The Bidding Prayers appear in the Processional.

Blessing of Bread.
After Mass, bread not used in the Eucharist was blessed by the Priest for the use of those who were not communicants at the Mass. A detailed history of this practice is found in Ellia Schreiber, ‘The Eulogia, of Blessed Bread’, The American Cahtolic Quarterly Review, XVI (1891): 382-395.

Another Blessing of Bread.
V. Adjutorium. Ps. 123:8.

Prayer. Domine sancte Pater. cf. John 6:33.

Blessing of Bread on Sundays.
V. Sit nomen Domini. Ps. 112:2.


The image is of the Mass of St. Gregory, in which the image of Christ appears on the altar while the Pope is saying mass. That Gregory is wearing the papal tiara seems unusual. In other depictions a Cardinal is holding the tiara. Here it seems to be a convenient way of identifying the celebrant. Also to be seen are, presumably, St. Mary and St. John the Evangelist flanking Christ, as if on a Rood. Two angels hold two of the Instruments of the Passion.  Riddel curtains flank the altar.  Each of the six pillars is surmounted by the image of a prophet.  On the altar are two candlesticks, the chalice, the mass book, and presumably the pax-brede; the bread, or ‘body of Christ’ is present literally in the figure of Jesus.

First Sunday in Advent.
It would appear that the designation ‘Ad missam’, otherwise redundant, is left over from the earlier Sarum Missals which included the processions. ‘Ad missam’ does not appear on ferias in the Missals, which do not have processions, but it does appear there in the printed Graduals.

Officium.  Ad te levavi. Ps. 24:1, 4. The Antiphon is Old Roman; the Psalm is Vulgate.
After the Psalm Verse the entire Antiphon is repeated. Then follows the Gloria Patri. After that the entire Antiphon is repeated again.

There appear to be no rubrics concerning the use of soloists for the verses of the Officium. (In contrast, there are extensive rubrics concerning the use of soloists for the Gradual and Alleluya.)

In some non-Sarum sources the end of the verse is ‘tuas doce me’; the second ending appears (see Graduale Triplex:15, Graduale Novum:3, Gregor & Taube). The Gradual Romanum:1 and the Liber Usualis:319 use the first ending for the Psalm-verse and the second ending for the Gloria Patri.

Dominus vobiscum.  This Tone, used also at Vespers and Lauds, is comparable to the Solemn Tone of the Roman Use (Liber Usualis:100).

Dominus vobiscum. This Tone, used also at the Little Hours, is comparable to the Simple Tone of the Roman Use (Liber Usualis:101).

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam et veni
This is one of several prayers during this season that begin with the word ‘Excita’ (‘Stir up’): The origin of these texts is Ps. 79:3: ‘Éxcita poténtiam tuam, et veni, ut salvos fácias nos.’

Sunday next before AdventExcita quesumus Domine tuorum fidelium
Advent IExcita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam et veni : ut ab iminentibus
Advent IIExcita Domine corda nostra
Feria vi. Quat. Temp.Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam et veni : ut hii
Advent IVExcita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam et veni : et magna

The text ‘Excita Domine potentiam tuam et veni : ut salvos facias nos’ appears in the Gradual and Alleluya for Advent III, and in the 3rd and 4th Graduals and final Tract for Saturday of the Four Seasons (Ember Days).  All these instances are also found in the Roman Missal.
The text ‘Tuam Domine excita potentiam : et veni ad salvandum nos’ appears as the ferial Antiphon in Advent at Terce; ‘excitando potentiam’ appears in the Sequence for Advent III.

In the BCP, the collect ‘Stir up, we beseech thee’ appears on the Sunday next before Advent; ‘O Lord, raise up, we pray thee, thy power’ appears on the the Fourth Sunday of Advent.

Memorial of Saint Mary
At Mass, each Memorial consists of Prayer (Collect), Secret, and Postcommunion. These Memorial Prayers are said in order after the Proper Prayer, Secret, and Postommunion of the Mass.

Prayer. Deus qui de beate Marie.
This is the Prayer for the Feast of the Annunciation, March 25.

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus.
This Prayer for all Saints is not the same as the Prayer for All Saints, November 1.

The manner of performing the Prayers (Collects, Secrets, and Postcommunions).
The normal pattern is a follows:

V. Dominus vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo.
V. Oremus
Prayer 1
Long ending; Per omnia secula seculorum. R. Amen.
 V. Oremus.
Prayer 2; short ending; Prayer 3;
[If there are more Prayers: short ending; Prayer 4; short ending; Prayer 5]
[If there are more Prayers: short ending; Prayer 6; short ending; Prayer 7]
Long ending; Per omnia secula seculorum. R. Amen.

Presumably in the case of the secrets, only the first ‘Oremnus’ and the final ‘Per omnia secula seculorum’ would be sung aloud.

The term Epistle is used here to denote the first reading, whether it be from the Old Testament or the New.  In either case the same Tone is used.

Tone for the Epistle.
The Tone is similar to the second ‘Tone for the Epistle’ found in the Liber Usualis:104. It consists of a reciting tone and two principle endings, a ‘metrum’, and a ‘full close’.  In addition, there is an ‘interrogation’ and a ‘conclusion’.

The reciting tone, notated as C, may be sung on any comfortable pitch.  The ‘metrum‘ is typically used in phrases ending with a colon.  It is an ending of two accents with one or more preparatory syllables, all on A.  The first accent is on C.  The following syllables and the following accent are all on B, until the final syllable, which returns to C.  The ‘full close‘ (punctum) is typically used in phrases ending with a period. It is also used in phrases that introduce a quotation.  It is an ending of two accents with no preparatory syllables. The first accent is on CD. The syllable(s) that follow until the second accent are on B. The second accent itself is on A, and the syllables that follow are on B.   (An abrupt full close is also possible, where two successive accents fall on the penultimate and ante-penultimate syllables.)  The ‘interrogation‘ (used for questions) is sung on B until the final syllable, sung on C. The ‘conclusion‘ contains two parts. The first part is an inflection AC, typically on the third accented syllable from the end, with none, one, or more preparatory notes A. The second part is an inflection to B, concluding with the final syllable on C.  This inflection is variable, appearing no sooner than the penultimate accent and no later than the final accent.
(According to the Liber Usualis:105, the conclusion contains two parts ‘between which there should be a certain distance, the first accent being modulated before the last phrase of the sentence, or before the last words which have a complete sense in themselves’. Where the Roman form (LU:105) commences the second part directly on the B, the Sarum form may delay the B until some two to four syllables before the end.)

In very short sentences and phrases, the Tone itself may require abbreviation, which normally is accomplished by omitting the beginning of an inflection, but preserving the ending.  A very short opening, such as ‘Fratres’, (‘Brethren’) would seem to be best performed with no inflection.  In readings that end with a question, the ‘conclusion’ inflection is always used.

This Tone accommodates some degree of interpretation, in particular as to the use of preparatory inflections to A, and in the choice of how many ‘metrums’ to include in lengthy sentences.

Extra syllables that occur between the final accent and the final syllable of the metrum, and the full close always appear on the lower note in the Sarum sources, in contrast to the Liber Usualis, where the additionals syllables appear on the upper note.

It must be admitted that there is little or no consistency in the use of punctuation in the various Sarum sources, whether manuscript or print.  This suggests that these interpretive decisions were left by and large to the individuals that chanted the Epistles.  The Latin edition conforms to the punctuation found in the 1513 Missal.  The English editions are based on the punctuation found in the King James and Douay-Rheims versions.

Gradual.  Universi. Ps. 24:3-4. Old Roman.
The Verse repeats the text of the Psalm at the Officium.
In the case where the entire Gradual is sung by a soloist the incipit should not be repeated at the beginning.

‘This was a verse or response which varied with the day, and was so called not, as some have supposed, from the steps of the altar but of the pulpit or ambo upon which it was sung.  Cassander, from an old exposition of an ordo Romanus, has put this beyond a doubt : “Responsorium quod ad missam dicitur, pro distinctione aliorum graduale vocatur, quia hoc psallitur in gradibus, caetera vero ubicunque voluerit clerus.” Opera, p. 44.  Durand says : “Dicitur graduale, vel gradale, a gradibus scilicet humilitatis.  Significans ascensus nostros a virtute in virtutem . . . . pertinet ad opera activae vitae, ut notetur nos operibus respondere eis quae in lectione audivimus : scilicet praedicationem.” Lib. iv. cap. 19.  Some authors suppose (see Cavalierus, tom. v. cap. x. 13, and Bellarmine, Controv. lib. vj. 70) that the gradual, whose first author is said to have been pope Celestine, was appointed “ne illud tempus quo diaconus ab altari recedens, et in suggestum ascendens in silentio elaberetur.”  This seems a very likely origin, and serves also to account for its name.’, Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 56.

‘in missis quotidie de sancta Maria ubi non potest haberi sequentia : nec cantus loco sequentie . . .’, ‘In missis vero quotidianis de sancta Maria, sufficit quod habeatur cantus loco sequentie : scilicet in capella ejusdem.’ The term ‘cantus’ suggests that here in place of the sequence may be sung a Marian Antiphon, or indeed a polyphonic Marian Motet, providing a welcome variety to the daily Mass of Saint Mary.

Alleluya. V. Ostende nobis. Ps. 84:8.
As for the Gradual (p. 8) in the case where the entire Alleluya is sung by a soloist, the incipit should be not repeated at the beginning.
This Alleluya is also used for the votive mass ‘Salus populi’.

The melody of this Alleluya is used also for the first mass of Christmas, Epiphany 3, the Saturday after Easter, within the Octave of the Ascension, Trinity 21, and on two Alleluyas for Feasts of One Virgin: ‘specie tua’ and ‘Diffusa est gratia’.  The sources are fairly consistent in the use of accidentals–less than appear in the Graduale Romanum, the Domincan Gradual (1950) or in the Graduale Novum.  Only one of the five Sarum sources studied thus far has one instance of a flat beyond those given in the edition: at Alleluya. Dominus in Synai for Ascension day.

Sequence.  Salus eterna.
Anon., trans. M.J. Blacker, The English Hymnal:10.
Antiphonal singing of the Sequence seems appropriate where possible. The first line would be completed by the ‘Choir’ Side, the next line would be sung by the ‘Other’ Side, and so on.
Neither the Dominican nor the Roman Use includes Sequences in Advent; the York and Hereford Uses include the same series of Advent Sequences as the Sarum Use.
The use of sequences in Advent sets this season apart from Lent.

This sequence flows on very well from the preceding Alleluya with no transposition required.  (Where the Alleluya has the range F-e, the Sequence has the range G-f.)

Rubrics for the Tract.
It appears that when four Clerks sing the Tract, all four begin each Verse together; then two from the Principal side complete each odd Verse, and two from the Other side complete each even Verse. The conclusion of the final Verse is sung by all four Clerks together.

‘Jube domine benedicere’ [Jube domne benedicere.]
‘(Jube domne benedicere.) This, says Le Brun, was a manner of address formerly much in use, as being a mark of humiliation and respect.  So, anciently among the Greeks the deacon, when he warned the faithful who were assembled in their solemn service either to rise or sit, did not say Rise or Sit, but merely “Jubete,” as if it were, command yourselves to do so and so.
‘The word domne is a contraction from dominus.  The latter was appropriated in its strict use to the Deity alone ; and domnus or domna was a title of great respect in the middle ages, and applied only to eminent dead saints or living people who occupied important offices in the church ; as, for example, the officiating priest during the celebration of the eucharist.  See also Ducange upon the word.
‘Upon this request and the reply, Peter Damian has well observed : “Lecturus magnae humilitatis gratia, non a sacerdote, sed ab eo, cui sacerdos jusserit, se postulat benedici dicens : Jube domne benedicere.  Sacerdos autem, ut tantae humilitati vicem reddat, non subjecto cuiquam benedicendi delegat officium, nec per semetipsum benedictionem dare praesumit : sed potius, ut a Deo, qui est super omnia benedictus, praerogetur, exposcit.”  De Dominus vobiscum, cap. ii.
‘When the pope officiates at matins on the day of the Nativity he does not say Domne before the ninth lection which he then reads, but Jube Domine benedicere : for he is supposed to be addressing not man, but God Himself : and no response is made : for the greater cannot be blessed by the less.  The choir answers simply “Amen.”  Some bishops (and the object of this rule is not easy to understand) in their own churches at matins were addressed by an inferior, “Jube domne benedicere,” to which they made the usual reply and benediction, and themselves read the appointed lection.  The Caerimoniale episc. now orders the same rite to be observed by all bishops as by the pope ; unless an archbishop or one of higher rank be present : “Si vero adesset aliquis praelatus major se.” &c.  Lib. ii. cap. 5.’, Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 64.

Tone for the Gospel.
The Tone for the Gospel has the same components as the Tone for the Epistle: metrum, full close, interrogation, and conclusion.
The metrum, interrogation, and conclusion use the same musical formulas as the found in the Epistle Tone.
The formula for the full close on Double Feasts is a simple inflection to A on the final accent (and any subsequent syllables). On other occasions it is a simple inflection to B.
The 1508 Gradual indicates an alternate figure for the metrum at the announcement of the Gospel. that figure replaces the conclusion of the metrum B C with the figure BC C C, such that BC falls on the final accent in ‘evangélii’.

‘Sequentia sancti evangelii . . .’
Sequcntia was said when the gospel was taken from the middle of one of the four gospels, Initium when it happened to be the beginning of either of the four.  On the four days of the Great week neither Sequentia nor Initium was said but ‘Passio Domini nostri Jesu Christi.’, Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 66.


‘. . . ad pulpitum [accedat] . . .’
‘This place in some countries from the benediction which always immediately preceded the advance to it was vulgarly called the Jube : so say Le Brun, tom. i. p. 110. and Micrologus, cap. ix.  It was always a high place.  “Evangelium in alto loco legitur, quia in monte praedicasse perhibetur, ideo etiam in sublimi legitur, quia sublimia sunt evangelica praecepta.”  Gemma animae, cap. xvi, “De pulpito.”  Compare also Alcuin : “Defertur evangelium ad analogium praecedentibus cereis.”  De div. officiisBibl. patrum aut. tom. i. p. 280.  And Amalarius, lib. iij. cap. 17 : “Lector et cantor in gradum ascendant, in more antiquorum.” and cap. 18 : “Tribunal vocat Cyprianus gradum, super quem ascendit diaconus ad legendum.” ‘,  Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 66.

‘. . . aquilonem id est borealem.
‘There is no little difference in the old books as to the place where and the quarter towards which the gospel should be read.  When as was very anciently the custom the men and the women were divided, it would seem that the gospel was always read towards the south side, where the men sat.  Amalarius, de off. lib. iii. c. 2, distinctly speaks of this arrangement : and an old ordo Romanus takes it for granted that on entering a church one would have the men upon the right hand or south side, and the women on the north.  See also Amalarius, Ecloga. cap. xiij, printed in Georgius, appendix, tom. iii. p. 350 : “Diaconus vero stat versus ad meridiem, ad quam partem viri solent confluere.”
‘ “Antequam tamen ulterius progrediamur, juvat in trans cursu ob oculos ponere formam veterum basilicarum.  Pleraeque orienti, quaedam occidenti obversae erant.  Navis columnis fulta, in qua viri ad austrum, mulieres ad septemtrionem residebant.  Sequebatur schola cantorum, nobis chorus appellatus.  Ambon sive lectorium unum aut alterum adjunctum erat : quatuor aut quinque hinc inde gradus duplices habens pro ascensu et descensu.  Ex quo videas, longe disparem fuisse formam amborum a forma odeorum nostrorum, quorum situs etiam diversus : cum ambones illi plurimum ad septemtrionem positi essent, odea vero nostra ea parte, quae chorum a navi disterminat.” Mabillon, Mus. Ital. tom. 2. p. xx.
‘The original reason why the men were addressed especially appears natural enough : viz that they are the chief objects of the Church’s teaching in her public offices, and from them the women are to learn at home : as St Paul admonishes.  Other customs gradually crept in, and a mystical reason was given why the gospel should be read towards the north : as we have seen (note 47) was the custom of the Church of Hereford : “ut per Dei verbum aquilonis, hoc est, daemonis pravi noxiique halitus disjiciantur.”  Le Brun, i. 111.  And the Gemma anima, cap. xvj : “Nunc autem secundum inolitum morem se (diaconus) ad aquilonem vertit, ubi feminae stant, quae carnales significant, quia evangelium carnales a spirituali bus vocat.  Per aquilonem quoque diabolus designatur, qui per evangelium impugnatur.  Per aquilonem etiam infidelis populus denotatur, cui evangelium praedicatur ut ad Christum convertatur.”  This last reason is taken from a very old sacramentary which says : “Diaconus dum legit, sistat versus ad aquilonem, quia frigidis in fide praedicatur evangelium.”  Sala, notes to Bona, tom. iii. p. 153 : but he does not say what book : “ex quodam libro sacramentorum ;” quoting Martene, Anecdot. tom. v. 1587.
‘I shall only further make an extract from the will of Maud, lady Mauley, dated in 1438 : “My body to be buried in the church . . . on the south side of the altar where the gospels are usually read.”  Testamenta vetusta, p. 235.’, Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 67.

Gospel. Matthew 21:1-9.
In the Roman Missal the Gospel is Luke 21:25-33.
Matthew 21:1-9 appears in the York Missal
In the Hereford Missal the Gospel is Mark 1:1-8.


Finito evangelio . . .
‘The usual custom was to the sermon, if there should be any, at this part of the service ; but there was no strict rule observed in all churches.  Sometimes the sermon was preached after the creed ; and sometimes after the offertory : as in 1476 on a special occasion Winchester in honour of the relics of St. Swithun : “antistes Wintoniensis missam celebrabat.  Lecto evangelio et offertorio finito, episcopus Cicestrensis sermonem habuit ad populum in vulgari.” Concil. tom. 3. p. 611.  Or again, on authority of Chaucer, we might suppose that a break in service at the offertory was by no means unusual.  Speaking of the Pardoner, he says :–

He was in chirche a noble ecclesiast,
Wel coude he rede a lesson or a storie,
But alderbest he sang an offertorie :
For wel he wiste, whan that song was songe,
He muste preche, and wel afile his tonge,
To winne silver, as he right wel coude :
Therfore he sang the merier and loude.  Prolog. 1. 712.

‘Very anciently more than one sermon was delivered : the priests first each in order gave a short exhortation, and if he were present the bishop last :  Apost. const. lib. ii. c. 58.  In the next chapter of the same book particular directions are given that priests coming from another parish should be pressed to preach, “for a stranger’s words are always acceptable and very useful, according to that in St. Matt., no prophet is without honour save in his own country.
‘ “Deinde episcopus sermonem ad populum facit.”  Gemma animae, cap. 25.  This custom of preaching during the liturgy has been established and never omitted during the whole existence of the Christian Church.  From the time of Justin Martyr we can trace a multitude of authorities, down to our own day.  It has always moreover been held to be one of the peculiar duties of the bishops of the Church : as St. Paul exhorted Timothy that he should “preach the word : instant in season and out of season.”
‘We find in the earliest records which remain of the English Church evidence of the anxiety which was always felt to enforce this great duty of preaching.  The sixth of the excerpts of Egbert orders every priest diligently to instruct his people : the third explains the time when this is to be done : “Ut omnibus festis et diebus dominicis unusquisque sacerdos evangelium Christi praedicet populo.”  Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 98.  Passing over some hundred years, we have the following among the canons of Aelfric : “The mass priest shall on sundays and mass days tell to the people the sense of the gospel in English, and concerning the pater-noster and the creed also, the oftenest that he can . . . Let the teacher warn against that which the prophet says : canes multi non possunt latrare.  We ought to bark and preach to the laymen, lest for want of teaching, they should perish.” Thorpe, p. 352.  Once more, for there would be no end of accumulating directions of this sort during succeeding ages : “The mass-priest shall rightly preach the true faith to men, and recite sermons to them ; and visit sick men.” &c.  Aelfric’s Pastoral epistle, p. 385.  Stillingfleet speaking of the frequency of preaching in the church of England before the reformation has made the strangest statements, and drawn (against the direct evidence of his own authorities) the most outrageous conclusions.  The well known passage from Sozomen (on which he and other protestant controversialists have relied) does not refer to preaching, generally, at Rome–for it is the city of Rome alone to which the historian alludes–but to the introduction of a sermon always at mass : which is not distinctly ordered in the earliest sacramentaries. Orig. Brit. p. 236.  Cf. van Espen, pars. ii. sect. i. tit. v. cap. 2, and synod. Trent. sess. 22. cap. 8.
‘In masses for the dead when, as was frequently the custom, sermons relating to the character of the deceased were to be preached, or indeed any sermon at all, it was not until the service was entirely finished, and the preacher (if also the celebrant) had laid aside the chasuble and maniple and put on a cope.  See upon this Gavantus, tom. i. p. 301 ; Bauldry, cap. 20 ; Castaldus, lib. ii. 9, and the Coer. episcop. lib. ii. cap. ii.
‘After the gospel indulgences were proclaimed, and excommunications, and banns of marriage : in some churches other solemnities, such as the reconciling and readmitting of penitents.  Vide Martene, de ant. ritibus ecc. lib. i. cap. 4.  Legates also explained the object of their legation.  With the conclusion of the sermon the missa catechumenorum also ended : and they, with the unreconciled and unbelievers, were dismissed and the doors shut, and persons stationed there to prevent any from coming in.  St. Augustine says, serm. 49, “Ecce post sermonem fit missa catechumenis, manebunt fideles.”  Much information upon all this portion of the liturgy in the earliest ages may be found in Bingham’s Christian antiquities ; on later practice in Bauldryus, Manualis sacr. coerim. cap. x.’, Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy: 70.

Pearson, The Sarum Missal:298. indicates that the Choir faces the Altar until the beginning of the Offertory, bowing as indicated.  The three inclinations that extend from ‘Et incarnatus est’ through to ‘et homo factus est’, while articulated by the fresh inclinations indicated, in effect constitute a single reverence encompassing the incarnation and passion portions of the Creed.

(Sandon, The Use of Salisbury, I:23. suggests that the Choir turn towards the Altar at the beginning, again at ‘Et incarnatus’, and again at ‘Et vitam venturi’.)

Hec sunt festa in quibus dicendum est Credo. . . .’
These are the feasts on which Credo is sung:
-all Sundays at high mass
-Sunday mass sung in Chapter on Sunday
-throughout the octaves of Christmas, Easter and Pentecost
-all double feasts
-all feasts of apostles and evangelists
-both feasts of the holy Cross (this is redundant)
-St. Mary Magdalene
-St. Michael (this is redundant, unless St. Michael on Mount Tumba is intended)
-nuptial mass
-masses of St. Mary when they are the mass of the day (this would include mass on the weekly commemoration of St. Mary)
-feast day of the patron of the place
-feast day of any saint with an altar in the church–at that altar only
-(apparently Credo is not said at masses of weekly commemorations of the feast of the place or of St. Thomas, martyr)

The Hereford Use includes St. Augustine of Canterbury.

Offertory.  Ad te Domine. Ps. 24:1-3. Old Roman.
This Offertory is also found on Thursday after Quinquagesima, on Wednesday in the Second Week of Lent, and on the Tenth Sunday after Trinity.

The rubrics do not make clear whether the Offertory is to be repeated after the Verse on ferias. In the absence of any rubric, it would seem that the Offertory is to be repeated after the Verse.

[In parish churches, when the Bidding Prayers were said, they were said after the Offertory.  The Bidding Prayers appear in the Processional.]

V. Dirige me in veritate. Ps. 24:5. Old Roman.

Presumably the Offertory Verse should be sung by the Clerks, in the manner of the Gradual.

If the full series of Commemorative Masses are used during the week–Salus populi on Tuesdays and Nos autem on Thursdays, and the Commemoration of St. Mary on Saturday, in addition to saints days, it would be very seldom indeed that the opportunity would appear where an Offertory Verse would be repeated within the week.

The Offertory Verses are omitted from the York, Hereford, and Roman.

V. Respice in me. Ps 24:16,20. Old Roman.

Secret. Hec sacra nos Domine potenti
 Communion.  Dominus dabit benignitatem. Ps. 84:13.

Postcommunion. Suscipiamus Domine misericordiam tuam

Monday in the First Week of Advent.

Weekday masses are observed in an order of precedence during ordinary times of the year.   In principle, if no feasts occurs during the week the Sunday Mass is repeated daily, except that on Wednesday and Friday the proper Epistle and Gospel are substituted.   Saturday is normally a Mass of the Virgin.  Any week-day can potentially be a Feast Day.  If a Sunday is occupied by a Feast of greater dignity, then the Sunday Mass is celebrated on the first free day of the week.  If the Sunday Mass is first celebrated on Wednesday the Wednesday readings are used on Thursday if vacant (or Friday if Friday does not have proper readings); otherwise the Wednesday readings are omitted that year.  Likewise if Wednesday is a Feast day, the Wednesday readings are read on Thursday if vacant (or on Friday if Friday does not have proper readings); otherwise the Wednesday readings are omitted.

Besides the above order of precedence there is also the incorporation of Saints days, Commemorations and Votive Masses.  The Commemoration of Saint Mary will normally be on Saturday, but may be transferred to any vacant day if a Saint’s day takes precedence, and the Commemoration of Mary will take precedence over the readings of the Wednesday or Friday.  Likewise there will normally be the Commemoration of the Feast of the Place (or of the patron Saint), and, historically, during the periods 1398-1538 and 1553-1559, the weekly commemoration of St. Thomas the martyr.

If there are vacant days in the week where the Sunday Mass might be repeated, then the Mass Salus populi. is normally Sung on that day in that week.  Salus populi is normally sung on Tuesday, but may be transferred to another unoccupied day.  It appears from the rubrics in the Gradual that the Mass Nos autem. was at times also sung as a weekly Votive Mass, perhaps in the cases where, all of the above being accounted for, a vacant day still remained in the week.

As Pearson notes, the text of the Gradual appears to be corrupted in these rubrics. It would seem that the general notion is that while normally the Votive Masses Salus populi and Nos autem will occupy some weekdays, as will commemorations of St. Mary and the Feast of the Place, and Feasts of the Sanctorale, on occasion a Votive Mass may be omitted so that certain Wednesday or Friday Mass readings that are frequently omitted may be read.

The Mass Salus populi is found on Thursday in the third week of Lent; Nos autem is found on Maundy Thursday.

Wednesday in the First Week of Advent
The proper Epistles and Gospels for Wednesdays and Fridays do not appear in the Roman Missal.

Epistle. James 5:7-10
This appears also in the York Missal.
The Hereford Missal has Isaiah 40:1-8.

Gospel. Mark 1:1-8
Here York and Hereford have Mat. 3:1-6.
Hereford has this Gospel on Advent 1.

Friday in the First Week of Advent
Epistle. Isaiah 51:1-8
Hereford has Isaiah 42:1-13; York has Isaiah 28:16-17; 29; 30:-18.

Gospel. Mat. 3:1-6
Hereford and York have Luke 3:7-18.

Saturday epistle. Ecce servus. (likely Isaiah 42:1)
Saturday gospel. Dicebat Johannes. (presumably Mat. 3:7-12)

Second Sunday in Advent
Officium.  Populus Syon. Cf. Is. 30:27, 30. Ps. 79:2.
In the Graduale Romanum:4 and the Liber Usualis:327 and Grego & Taube ‘Populus’ is set GCCD.C.C. and the third ending is used. In the Graduale Novum:7 ‘Populus’ is set GDDE.D.D. A different ending, AGA. appears in the Graduale Novum:7 and in Gregor & Taube.

Prayer. Excita Domine corda nostra

Gradual.  Ex Syon species. Ps. 49:2-3, 5. Old Roman.

Alleluya. V.  Virtutes celi movebuntur. Luke 21:26. not strictly Vulgate.
The text is taken from the Gospel Lesson.
Note how the the music of ‘cum potestate’ is repeated directly for ‘et majestate’.

The Roman Alleluya is Letatus sum.  (The Graduale Romanum 1908 does not include this Alleluya.)
The York Use has two Verses, Letatus sum, and Stantes erant pedes, to be used in alternation through the week.
Hereford follows Sarum here.

Sequence.  Regnantem sempiterna per secla.
Anon. trans. John D. Chambers, Lauda Syon, 1866, alt. after a setting by Christopher MacAvoy. © 2013 by Christopher MacAvoy.  Used with permission.
This sequence also appears in the York and Hereford Missals.
In contrast to most sequences, this sequence moves to a lower tessitura towards the end.
The Alleluya and sequence can be performed well without transposition; the beginning of the sequence repeats the final notes of the Alleluya, AG.

Gospel. Luke 21:25-33
The Roman Missal has Matthew 11:2-10
In the Roman Missal Luke 21:25-33 appears on Advent 1.

Offertory.  Deus tu convertens. Ps. 84:7. Old Roman.
This Offertory is also used on Friday in the Ember Days of Advent.

V. Benedixisti Domine. Ps. 84:2.

V. Misercordia et veritas. Ps. 84:11, 12.

Secret. Placare quesumus Domine humilitatis

Communion.  Hierusalem surge. after Bar. 4:36, 5:5.

Postcommunion. Refecti cibo potuque spiritualis alimonie
The Roman and York forms begin ‘Repleti cibo spiritualis alimonie.
The Sarum form is also found in the Hereford and Westminster Missals.

Wednesday in the Second Week of Advent
Lesson. Zacharia 8:3-8.
The York Missal has Isaiah 51:1-6.
The Hereford Missal has Isaiah 43:5-13.

Friday in the Second Week of Advent
Lesson. Isaiah 62:6-12.
The Hereford Missal has Isaiah 51:1-6.
The York Missal has Isaiah 43:14; 41:27; 42:1-10, 13.

Gospel. John 1:15-18
The York Missal has Mark 1:4-8.
The Hereford Missal repeats Mark 1:1-8 from Advent 1.

Third Sunday in Advent
Officium.  Gaudete in Domino. Phil. 4:4-7.
The ‘Psalm’ is a continuation of the Epistle text of the Antiphon ‘Et pax Dei’.
The Roman Tridentine Introit has a different Psalm text: Benedixisti Domine (Ps. 84:2).  Note however, that the 1548 Roman Missal has ‘Et pax Dei’, the Epistle text, as did the Rouen Missal (Martene, Tractatus (Lyon, 1706) :74).  The Dominican MIssal, 1950, has ‘Et pax Dei’.
The 13th c. Rouen Gradual (BnF Gallica):4v. has ‘Et pax Dei’, but this has been partially erased and ‘Benedixisti’ has been entered in the margin in a later hand.
The Hereford and York Missals have ‘Et pax Dei’.

Prayer. Aurem tuam quesumus Domine

Epistle. I. Cor. 4:1-5
The Roman Missal has Phil 4:4-7 ‘Gaudete in Domino semper’, matching the Introit.

Gradual.  Qui sedes Domine super Cherubin. Ps. 79:2-3.

Alleluya. V. Excita Domine potentiam. Ps. 79:3.

Sequence.  Qui regis sceptra.
Anon. Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
The melody is known as ‘Excita Domine’. (Hiley, Western Plainchant:181.)
The Sequence picks up on the Gradual Verse text ‘Qui regis’.
The Sequence melody begins elegantly by following the general shape of the concluding melisma of the Alleluya verse. (outline A-G-F-E); no transposition is necessary.

Oxford, University College, MS 148, a troper-sequentiary from Chichester Cathedral, contains a particular rubric for this sequence: ‘A tribus presbyteribus est cantanda in capis sericis choro respondente A.’  Lori Kruckenberg, ‘Neumatizing the Sequence: Special Performance of Squences in the Central Middle Ages’, Journal of the American Musicological Society LIX-2: 206: 256-257, suggests that adding the neumatic repetitions to this particular sequence might be intended to modify the aparallel melodic structure into a parallel melodic structure, as is more characteristic of the genre.

Gospel. Matthew 11:2-10
The Roman Missal has John 1:19-28

Offertory.  Benedixisti Domine terram tuam. Ps. 84:2-3.

V. Operuisti omnia peccata. Ps. 84:3-4.

V. Ostende nobis Domine. Ps. 84:8.
This chant contains an unusual tritone leap at ‘tuam : et’.

Secret. Devotionis nostre tibi Domine

Communion.  Dicite pusillanimes. After Is. 35:4.

Postcommunion. Imploramus Domine clementiam tuam

Wednesday in the Ember Days of Advent
Officium. Rorate celi desuper. Is. 45:8; Ps. Is. 45:8.
The ‘Psalm’ verse is a continuation of the antiphon text.
The Graduale Romanum:19 has the verse ‘Celi enarrant’. While the Psalm-verse uses the first ending, the Gloria Patri uses the second ending.  The 13th c. Rouen Graduale (BnF Gallica):5v. has ‘Celi enarrant’.
This Officium appears also on the Feast of the Annunciation.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut redemptionis

Gradual. Tollite portas. Ps. 23:7 (9); 3-4.
‘Tollite’ is Old Roman; ‘vestras’ and ‘ascendet’ are Vulgate.
This Gradual appears also on the Feast of the Annunciation.

Gradual. Prope est Dominus. Ps. 144:18, 21.
This Gradual is repeated on the Fourth Sunday in Advent.
The Vulgata Clementina has ‘omnibus invocantibus eum in veritate.’; the Old Roman omits this phrase. The chant text, ‘omnibus qui invocant eum in veritate’ is found in the Biblia sacra Vulgata.

Offertory. Ave Maria. Luke 1:28, 42, 35.
In the Roman Use the Offertory is ‘Confortamini’, while the Sarum, York and Dominican Uses have ‘Ave Maria’. The Sextuplex indicates both chants on this day.
This Offertory appears also on the Feast of the Annunciation.

Secret. Salutari jejunio competentes Domine
The Roman, York and Hereford Missals have ‘Accepta tibi sunt, quesumus, Domine’.
While the theme of both Secrets is very similar, the Sarum text alludes to the coming celebration of the Nativity.

Communion. Ecce virgo concipiet. Is. 7:14.
This Communion is repeated on the Fourth Sunday in Advent and on the Feast of the Annunciation.

Postcommunion. Salutaris tui Domine munere

Friday in the Ember Days of Advent
Officium. Prope esto Domine.  Ps. 118:151-152, 1.  The Vulgate and Old Roman have ‘es tu’ (as does the Graduale Romanum:10 and the Dominican Graduale 1950:10) and ‘quia in eternum fundasti ea.’  The 13th c. Rouen Graduale (BfN Gallica):6r. has ‘Prope esto’.

In the Graduale Romanum:10 the Psalm-verse uses the first ending, but the Gloria Patri uses the ending EGFF.

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam

Gradual. Ostende nobis Domine.  Ps. 84:8, 2.

Offertory. Deus tu conversus. Ps. 84:7. Old Roman.
This is repeated from the Second Sunday in Advent.

Secret.  Sacrificiis quesumus Domine salutaribus
The Roman Use has the Secret ‘Muneribus nostris’.
The Sarum Secret is found in the Westminster Missal.
The Sarum Secret makes allusion to the coming Feast of the Nativity.

Communion.  Ecce Dominus veniet.   after Zach. 14:5,6.

Postcommunion. Perfice Domine misericordiam tuam
The Roman, Hereford and York Uses have the Postcommunion ‘Tui nos Domine Sacramenti’.
The Sarum Postcommunion is found in the Westminster Missal.

Saturday in the Ember Days of Advent
Officium. Veni et ostende nobis. Ps. 79: 3,4,2.

Prayer. Deus qui conspicis quia ex nostra pravitate

Gradual. A summo celo. Ps. 18:7,2.
The four Graduals of this day all belong to the ‘Justus ut palma’ melodic group in Mode II. (See Hiley, Western Plainchant (1993):77.) The first Gradual of the preceding Wednesday and the Gradual for the preceding Friday also belong to the same melodic group.

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui sub peccati jugo

Gradual. In sole posuit. Ps. 18:6,7.
The text of the Verse comes from the Antiphon of the preceding Gradual.

Prayer. Indignos nos quesumus Domine

Gradual. Domine Deus virtutum. Ps. 79:8,3. ‘Dominus’ is found in the Old Roman Psalter.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut Filii tui

Gradual. Excita Domine potentiam. Ps. 79:3,2. ‘appare’ is from the Old Roman Psalter.
The text of the Antiphon uses the Verse of the preceding Gradual.

Prayer. Preces populi tui quesumus Domine

Lectio. Angelus Domini descendit.
This Lesson appears in KJV in the Apocryphal Song of the three Children.
The York and Roman Missals begin ‘In diebus illis.’, as does the Benedictine MIssal (Venice 1580). and the Sherbrooke Missal. The Hereford Missal omits ‘In diebus illis’.

Tract. Benedictus es Domine Deus. after Dan 3:52. ff., Ps. 103:3.
The text is a paraphrase of the ‘Song of the Three Children’, Daniel 3:52-90, including a reference to Ps. 103:3: ‘qui ambulas super pennas ventorum’.   This is a Tract in that it is a continuous passage set verse by verse, and in terms of its position amid the Lessons. (It is also labelled ‘Tract’ in the 1548 Roman Missal.) This piece may also appropriately be considered a Canticle, in that it is drawn from biblical poetry outside of the Psalter, or indeed as a Hymn (as it is termed in the Liber Usualis). Its musical style is unlike a typical Tract in that it is in Mode VII, and the melodic formula is less ornate and more in the manner of an elaborate Psalm Tone.  This treatment is likely suggested by the repetitive nature of the text.
The Roman text of 1548 has ‘Benedictus es qui ambulas super pennas ventorum : et super undas maris.’ Following ‘Gloria Patri’ &c. and ‘Sicut erat.’ &c. the Roman text repeats ‘Et laudabili et glorioso in secula.’
cf. the Tracts ‘Benedictus es in firmamento’ on Saturday in the Ember Days of Lent, and ‘Omnipotentem semper’ on Saturday in the Ember Days of September.
In the Roman Missal this is labeled as a Hymn.

Prayer. Deus qui tribus pueris mitigasti
This prayer is repeated on each of the three other Saturday Ember Days; on Saturday of the Ember Days of Pentecost, the clause, ‘ut adveniente Spiritu Sancto’ is added.

Tract. Qui regis israel intende.  Ps. 79:2-3. ‘appare’ is from the Old Roman Psalter.
In the Hereford Missal this is labelled ‘Responsorium’.

Offertory. Exulta satis filia Syon. after Zach. 9:9,10. The Vulgate has ‘jubila filia Hierusalem . . . justus et salvator . . . a fluminibus usque ad fines terre’. The Versio Antiqua has ‘predica’.

Secret. Super has hostias
The Roman and York Uses have the secret ‘Sacrificiis presentibus’.
The Hereford Use has ‘Ecclesie tue Domine munera sanctifica’.

Communion. Exultavit ut gigas. Ps. 18:6-7. Old Roman has ‘gigans’.

Postcommunion. Quesumus Domine Deus noster : ut sacrosancta mysteria
This Postcommunion is repeated on the Sunday Mass for the First Week after the Octave of Easter.

Fourth Sunday in Advent
In the earliest sources this Sunday was designated ‘Dominica vacat’ and had no propers assigned to it. This would account for the variety of proper chants to be found amongst the Gregorian sources. Thus Sarum, in common with York, Rouen and the Dominicans has the Officium ‘Memento’ while the Roman Missal repeats the Introit ‘Rorate Celi’ from the previous Wednesday. However, the Ps. ‘Peccavimus’ in the Sarum Use differs from that in the York, Rouen and Dominican Uses, which is Ps. ‘Confitemini’.
Where the Roman Use has the Offertory ‘Ave Maria’, the Sarum and Dominican Uses have ‘Confortamini’. This is a reversal of the previous Wednesday where the Roman Use has ‘Confortamini’ and the Dominican and Sarum Uses have ‘Ave Maria.’

Officium. Memento nostri. Ps. 105:4-6. ‘ad letandum’ is omitted.
In the Roman Use the Introit is ‘Rorate celi’, repeated from Wednesday in the Ember Days of Advent. ‘Memento nostri’ appears ‘in the Transalpine regions’, László Dobszay, ‘The Proprium Missae of the Roman Rite’ Uwe Michael lang, Ed., The Genius of the Roman Rite (Chicago: Hillenbrand Books, 2010): 86.

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam
The York Use omits ‘quesumus’.

Epistle. Phil 4:4-7
In the Roman Missal the Epistle is 1 Cor. 4:1-5. In the Roman Missal the Epistle Phil. 4:4-7 appears on Advent 3.

Gradual. Prope est. This Gradual is repeated from Wednesday in the Ember Days of Advent.

Alleluya. V. Veni Domine et noli tardare.
The text is also found in Responsory 7 of the Third Sunday in Advent.

The tonality is peculiar in that the Alleluya and jubilus are in Mode III (transposed) while the verse is in Mode I (transposed), both sharing the common finalis, A.
The Roman form of the melody transposes the Alleluya down a fourth beginning and ending on E; the verse is transposed down a fifth–with B-flat throughout; effectively the Alleluya is in Mode !II and the verse is in Mode I.  The Dominican form has a different Alleluya melody, in Mode I, and the verse is transposed down a fifth.  Interestingly, the Graduale Novum:17 supports the Sarum reading.  (Note that the York version begins directly on B-flat, creating a tritone interval with the end of the Alleluya intonation.)
Compare also the Alleluya of the fifteenth Sunday after Trinity.

Sequence. Jubilemus omnes una. 11th c.
Anon. Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
Roger Sorrell, St. Francis of Assisi and Nature : Tradition and Innovation in Western Christian Attitudes toward the Environment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988):105 discusses the possible influence of this sequence on Francis of Assisi’s Il cantico di Frate Sole. This was also noted by Samuel W. Duffield in Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1899):393.
The opening notes of the melody clearly reflect the opening pitches of the Alleluya.
A suitable pitch for performance of the Alleluya and sequence would be transposing down a fifth, beginning the Alleluya on D, and the sequence on E-flat.

Gospel. John 1:19-28
In the Roman Missal the Gospel, Luke 3:1-6, is repeated from the previous day.

Offertory. Confortamini. After Is. 35:4,5.
The Dominican and Hereford Uses also have the Offertory ‘Confortamini’ here. The Roman and York Uses have ‘Ave Maria’. This is the opposite of the case on Wednesday in the Ember Days of Advent.

Secret. Sacrificiis presentibus quesumus Domine

Communion. Ecce virgo concipiet. Is. 7:14.
This Communion is repeated from Wednesday in the Ember Days of Advent.

Postcommunion. Populum tuum quesumus Domine donoroum tuorum
The Roman, York and Hereford Uses have the Postcommunion ‘Sumptis muneribus quesumus Domine’.
The Sarum Postcommunion also appears in the Westminster Missal.

Wednesday in the Fourth Week of Advent
Lesson. Exultate filie Syon.
The final clause is taken from Ps. 89:2 and 105:48.

Friday in the Fourth Week of Advent
Lesson. Lauda et letare filia Syon.
The text ‘dicit Dominus omnipotens’ is taken from II Cor. vi.:18.

On the Vigil of the Nativity of the Lord

Officium. Hodie scietis quia veniet Dominus. after Ex 16:6; Ps. 23:1.  (Ps. Gallican)
While the Sarum Officium has ‘salvabit vos’, the Gradual (in most Sarum Missals), has ‘salvabit nos’.
In the 13th. c. Rouen Gradual (BfN Gallica):10r. the Psalm-verse is ‘Qui regis Israel’.

Prayer. Deus qui nos redemptionis

Unus puer accolitus legat hanc lectionem . . .  The use of a boy to sing the prophecy is a feature of the Sarum ritual which also appears at the Palm Sunday procession.


Tone for the Lesson.  The termination indicates that in the case of an accented monosyllable at the end, the previous weak syllable will also fall on the B.

The Roman Rite does not include the prophetic lessons at Christmas; the Dominican Rite does, as do the York, Hereford, Cologne , Paris and Benedictine Missals (Missale Monasticum (Venice, 1580).).

Gradual. Hodie scietis quia veniet Dominus. After Ex 16:6; V. Ps. 79:2-3 (Old Roman).

Alleluya. V. Crastina die.
‘From an unknown (probably Gallican) source, the phrase ‘Salvator mundi’ is especially if not exclusively Gallican’, Warren, Sarum Missal-I:94.

Both the York and Hereford Missals indicate the sequence ‘Jubilemus’ when the Vigil of Christmas falls on a Sunday.

Offertory. Tollite portas principes Ps. 23:7, 1 (Old Roman).

Secret. Da nobis quesumus
‘prevenimus’, ‘prevent’, i.e. come before, anticipate.

Communion. Revelabitur gloria Domini. Is. 40:5; 52:10.

Liber generationes.
This reading of the Genealogy is properly part of Matins.  It is not entirely clear why it is reprinted in the Sarum Missals and Graduals.

Christmas Day

Ad missam in gallicantu
In the Roman sources this Mass is labelled as ‘In nocte’ or ‘Midnight Mass’.
This mass takes place after Matins and before Lauds.

Officium. Dominus dixit ad me. (Ps. 2:7.)

Gloria in excelsis
The rubric for Gloria in excelsis appears here because this is the first time on the year that ot is sung.

[Te Deum (and therefore also Gloria in excelsis) is omitted:
-during Advent
-from Septuagesima until Easter
-on all ferias when the feria is observed
-on feasts of thee lessons that are observed on vigils
-on the Four Seasons (ember days), including those on Friday and Saturday in the week of Pentecost (Wednesday of this week is double feast)
-on the feast of St. Petronilla falling after the octave of the Trinity and Corpus Christi
-on the feast of St. Bertin
-on the feast of St. Tecla
-on the feast of St. Romanus
-on all vigils except the Vigils of the Epiphany falling on a Sunday
The rubrics for singing Te Deum appear at matins of Christmas day, because that is the first occasion in the year on which it is sung.
However, as the rubric indicates, Gloria in excelsis is not sung at mass when Te Deum is sung at matins:
-in the mass Salus populi on a feria
-in the mass of the Cross on a feria
-in Sunday masses sung on ferias
Te Deum is said at the weekly commemoration of Blessed Mary outside of Advent and Septuagesima-tide.]

Prayer. Deus qui hanc sacratissimam noctem

Lectio. Laudes Deo dicam per secula.
This Lesson is in the form of a farsed Epistle in which phrases of Isaiah are responded to with texts drawn from other sources.  (See David Hiley, Western Plainchant : A Handbook, 236-237.)  The insertions ‘appropriate to the Christian dispensation the words of Isaiah.’ (The Ecclesiologist, XXIII (1862): 120.)  The text also appears in the Segovia Missal (Missale secundum consuetudinem Segobiensis ecclesie) (Venice, 1500): 8v, and in the Sens Use (see Félix Bourquelot, ed., L’office de la fête de fous de Sens (1856): 40).
A versified translation appears in The Christian Remembrancer XLIV (1862): 142-144.

The text-phrases from Isaiah are set to a unique, repeated chant melody.  The troped phrases employ contrasting motives.  In some instances, noted below, a musical quotation accompanies a text quotation.

‘In qua Christi lucida . . . ‘ is based on a passage from the sequence ‘Fulgens preclara’ used at Easter, and includes a partial musical quotation.
‘Pater, Filius . . . ‘ has not been traced thus far.
‘Quem creasti . . . ‘ is from the sequence ‘Rex omnipotens die hodierna’ used at the Ascension of the Lord; the music is a varied form of the sequence melody.
‘Fulserunt . . . ‘ is from the sequence ‘Nato canunt omnia’ of the First Mass of Christmas; the music is a full quotation of the sequence melody.
‘Sempiterna . . . ‘  is from the sequence ‘Salus eterna’ used on the First Sunday in Advent; the music is a full quotation of the sequence melody.  The final word ‘Lux’ of the previous phrase is also taken from the sequence; this may help to explain the unusual musical setting of this syllable, which is both the end of the biblical passage and the beginning of the quotation.
‘O stupenda . . . ‘ is from the sequence ‘Sonent regi’ from the Second Mass of Christmas; the music is an ornamented form of the sequence melody.
‘Magnus hic erit . . . ‘ is from the sequence ‘Salve porta perpetue’ used at York and Chartres.  (See ‘Et regni meta sui’ below.)
‘Patris summi.’  This text appears in both the hymn ‘Rex sanctorum’ of Holy Saturday and the sequence ‘Area virga’ for the Assumption.
‘Ab arce . . . ‘ has not been traced thus far.
‘Ut celos regat . . . ‘ has not been traced thus far.
‘Messias . . . ‘ is from the sequence ‘Alma chorus Domini’ used at Pentecost and on the Feast of the Most Sweet Name of Jesus; the music is a full quotation from the sequence melody.
‘Radix David.’ may possibly be from the non-Sarum sequence ‘Ecce vicit radix David’, for Sunday in the Octave of Easter.  See AH-LIII: #39 (p. 73.)
‘Dei Patris.’ is found, among other places, at the end of ‘Gloria in excelsis Deo’; no source for the music has yet been identified.
‘Qui creavit omnia.’ is found in the sequence ‘Jubilemus omnes una’ for the Fourth Sunday of Advent, and in the sequence ‘Eya recolamus’ for the Feast of the Circumcision, but in neither case does the music match.
‘Baratri claustra . . . ‘ has not been traced thus far.
‘Rex omnipotens . . . ‘ has not been traced thus far.
‘Hic et in evum.’ may have been taken from the antipon Salve lux mundi for the Palm Sunday procession, but the music is different.
‘In Hierusalem . . . ‘ is from the sequence ‘Rex omnipotens’ used at the Feast of the Ascension of the Lord, but the music does not match.
‘Per secula . . . ‘ has not been traced thus far.
‘Et regni meta sui . . . ‘ appears in the sequence ‘Salve porta perpetue’, used at York and Chartres.
‘In fide pignore’ has not been traced thus far.
‘Judex cum venerit . . . ‘ is related to the text ‘cum veneris judicare seculum per ignem’ found in Responsory 9, ‘Libera me’ of the Office of the Dead.
‘Illi debetur . . . ‘ appears to be related to the text ‘Cui soli debetur honor, gloria, laus et jubilatio’ from the sequence ‘Eya Sion gaude et letare’.
‘Ab ortu . . . ‘ cf. Ps. 106:3.
‘Amen dicant omnia’ is the conclusion of the sequence ‘Mane prima sabbati’ used on Saturday in Easter Week and the Feast of S. Mary Magdalene, but the music does not match.

Lesson. Isaiah 9:2, 6-7.
This is the same as the above Lesson, but with the tropes omitted.
The Roman Missal omits the Lesson from Isaiah entirely.

Epistle. Titus 2:11-15.

Gradual. Tecum principium (Ps. 109: 3,1.)
Note the opening interval of the fifth, in contrast to the fourth in the Roman books.

This Gradual appears also at the Feast of the Transfiguration.

Alleluya. V. Dominus dixit ad me. Ps. 2:7.
See the note at the Alleluya for the first Sunday in Advent.

Sequence. Nato canunt omnia.
Trans. J. M. Chambers, Lauda Syon (London: J. Masters, 1866): II-111.
It may be appropriate to transpose the Alleluya and sequence down a whole tone in performance.

Offertory. Letentur celi. Ps. 96:11, 13 (Old Roman).

Secret. Accepta sit tibi Domine quesumus

Communion. In splendoribus. Ps. 109:3.

Postcommunion. Da nobis quesumus Domine Deus noster

The image is of the shepherds reacting to the appearance of the angel (Luke 8-14.) Note the shepherd’s pipe, a part of the pastoral tradition that has inspired many composers, including Corelli and Handel in particular.

The Mass at Sunrise
Officium. Lux fulgebit (after Is. 9:2, 6; Ps. 92:1.)

This Officium appears also at the Vigil of the Epiphany.

Seeing that the ordinary chants are from the common for feasts of 9 lessons, this second mass of Christmas appears to be of lesser standing that the other two.

The Graduale Romanum:28 and the Liber Usualis:403 have the first ending for the Psalm-verse, but the second ending for the Gloria Patri.

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui nova.

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut qui beate Anastasie

During this season the Memorials (Prayers, Secrets, and Postcommunions) take the following order, representing the full Octaves of Christmas, St. Stephen, St. John, the Holy Innocents, and St. Thomas, and commemorations of Ss. Anastasia and Edward.  (The Memorials here break the pattern by which the number of Prayers, Secrets, and Postcommunions is otherwise an odd number.):

Dec. 25NativityAnastasia
Dec. 26St. StephenNativity
Dec. 27St. JohnNativity, St. Stephen
Dec. 28Holy InnocentsNativity, St. Stephen, St. John
Dec. 29St. ThomasNativity, St. Stephen, St. John, Holy Innocents
Dec. 30Sixth DayNativity, St. Stephen, St. John, Holy Innocents, St. Thomas
Dec. 31St. SilvesterNativity, St. Stephen, St. John, Holy Innocents, St. Thomas
Jan. 1Circumcisionno memorials
Jan. 2Octave of St. StephenSt. John, Holy Innocents, St. Thomas, St. Mary
Jan. 3Octave of St. JohnHoly Innocents, St. Thomas, St. Mary
Jan. 4Octave of the Holy InnocentsSt. Thomas, St. Mary
Jan. 5Vigil of EpiphanySt. Thomas, St. Edward

The Memorial of St. Mary, itself an recollection of the Incarnation, resumes on January 2 when the Christmas Octave is ended.

Lesson. Isaiah 61:1-3; 62:11-12.
This Lesson does not appear in the Roman Missals

Epistle. Titus 3:4-7.

Gradual. Benedictus qui venit (Ps. 117:26, 27; 23. (Old Roman).)

This Gradual appears also at the Vigil of the Epiphany.

Alleluya. V. Dominus regnavit (Ps. 92:1. (Old Roman).)
This Alleluya is repeated on the Sixth Day of Christmas and on the Vigil of the Epiphany.
It is of note that the Roman Missal 1962 translates ‘virtute’ as ‘power’ on page 184, but as ‘might’ on page 213. (The Old Roman in fact has ‘virtutem’.)

The great majority of the Alleluyas of the Christmas season are in Mode II, and they belong to two melodic types: (a) Christmas, second mass, sixth day; (b) Christmas, third mass, Stephen, John, Thomas, Silvester, Epiphany.

Sequence. Sonent Regi.
11th c.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.

The opening melodic gesture makes an excellent connection with opening gesture of the Alleluya.  The Alleluya and sequence can be sung without transposition.
The York use has the sequence ‘Letabundus’ here.

Gospel. Luke 2:15-20.

Offertory. Deus enim firmavit. after Ps. 92:1. (Old Roman.)
This is repeated on the sixth day of Christmas and on the Vigil of the Epiphany.
This Offertory could well be considered as being in Mode II, since all but one of the Bs are flatted. The Graduale Romanum (1908): 29, has B-natural throughout.

Secret. Munera nostra quesumus Domine

Secret. Accipe quesumus domine munera

Communion. Exulta filia Syon (after Zech 9:9.)

Postcommunion. Hujus nos Domine sacramenti

Postcommunion. Saciasti Domine familiam tuam

Third mass on the day of the Nativity of the Lord

Officium. Puer natus est nobis (after Is. 9:6, 7; Ps. 97:1).

This Officium appears also on the Feast of the Circumcision.

Prayer. Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus ut nos Unigeniti

Lesson. Is. 52:6-10.
This Lesson does not appear in the Roman Missal.

Epistle. Heb. 1:1-12.

The Graduale Romanum:30, the Liber Usualis:408 and the 13th. c. Rouen Graduale (BnF Gallica):16r. use the third ending.  The Graduale Novum:28 and Gregor & Taube use the ending AGA.

Gradual. Viderunt omnes. Ps. 97:3, 2. (Old Roman.)

This Gradual appears also on the Feast of the Circumcision.

Alleluya. V. Dies sanctificatus.

This Alleluya appears also on the Feast of the Transfiguration.

Sequence. Celeste organum.
Translation © 2012 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
The opening of the sequence follows the contour of the Alleluya.  The Alleluya and sequence can be sung well togther transposed up a second or a third.
The York Use has the sequence ‘Christi hodierna celebremus natalicia’ here.

Offertory. Tui sunt celi. Ps. 88:12, 15. (Old Roman.)

This Offertory appears also on the Feast of the Circumcision.

Secret. Oblata Domine munera nova

Communion. Viderunt omnes. Ps. 97:3.

This Communion appears also on the Feast of the Circumcision.

Postcommunion. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus

The image shows Stephen as a deacon, tonsured and robed in a dalmatic, bearing a book and and the stones of his martyrdom.

St. Stephen
Officium. Etenim sederunt (Ps. 118:23, (108:26), 118:86; 1 (Old Roman).)

Prayer. Da nobis quesumus Domine

Epistle. Acts 6 and 7.

Gradual. Sederunt principes (Ps. 118:23, 108:26 (Old Roman).)

Alleluya. V. Video celos apertos (after Acts 7:55.)

Sequence. Magnus Deus.
Translation © 2013 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
This melody is also used for ‘Eya gaudens caterva’ for the feast of St. Alban.
The Alleluya and sequence can be sung a whole tone or minor third above the written pitch.

Gospel. Mat. 23:34-39

Offertory. Elegerunt apostoli (after Acts 6:5, 7:59.)

Prayer. Suscipe Domine munera

Communion. Video celos apertos (Acts 7:56, 59, 60).

Postcommunion. Auxilientur nobis Domine sumpta mysteria

The choice of image may be in error: the ox in the lower right suggests St. Luke rather than St. John.

St. John
Officium. In medio ecclesie (after Ecclus. 15:5-6.)
In the Graduale Romanum this Officium appears in the Common of Doctors, with the Psalm-verse ‘Bonum est confiteri’.  In the 13th. c. Rouen Graduale the Psalm-verse is ‘Bonum est confiteri’.

Prayer. Ecclesiam tuam quesumus Domnine

Lesson. Eccl. 15:1-6.

Gradual. Exiit sermo inter fratres (after John 21:23, 22.)

Alleluya. V. Hic est discipulus ille (John 21:24.)
This melody is also used for ‘Alleluya. Gloria et honore’.

Sequence. Johannes Jesu Christo.
Notker of St. Gall.  Translation © 2013 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
The sequence connects very well with the Alleluya; they can be sung without transposition.

Offertory. Justus ut palma (after Ps. 91:13.)

This Offertory is also used for Feasts of One Martyr.

Secret. Suscipe munera quesumus Domine

Communion. Exiit sermo inter fratres (after John 21:23.)

Postcommunion. Refecti cibo potuque

On the day of the Holy Innocents, Martyrs
While the boys take the leadership roles at the office this day, there is no indication that this applies to the mass (for which ordination is required).

Officium. Ex ore infantium (Ps. 8:3, 1.)

Prayer. Deus cujus hodierna die preconium
It is interesting that the Prayer concludes ‘Qui cum Deo Patre . . . ‘ since the Prayer is not explicitly addressed to the Son. In the Roman Missal the conclusion is ‘Per Dominum nostrum . . . ‘.

Lesson. Apoc. 14:1-5.

Gradual. Anima nostra sicut passer (Ps. 123:7-8.)

This Gradual is also used in the Common of Many Martyrs.

Alleluya. V. Te martyrum candidatus.
The V. is taken from the Canticle Te Deum.

This Alleluya is also used in the Common of Many Martyrs.
The Roman Missal has Alleluia. V. Laudate pueri.

‘According to the old rubric (Mig. Thom R cp. Amalarius I. xli., Micrologus 36), there was no Alleluia on this day, but in some places “Laus tibi Christe” was substituted for it (see G. R and P.M. i. pl. xviii. and pp. 114, 115).  It survived in York (see E).
The York Missal has ‘Laus tibi Christe. V. Te martyrum candidatus laudat exercitus Domine. Si sit dominica. Alleluya. versus Te martyrum.’  This implies that in York Use the text ‘Alleluya’ would be replaced with ‘Laus tibi Christe’, to the same music. The additional syllable could be conveniently accommodated by an additional G after the second syllable.

Sequence.  Celsa pueri.
Translation © 2013 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
This melody is also used at Pentecost.
The Alleluya and sequence can be sung without transposition.

Offertory. Anima nostra (Ps. 123:7-8.)

This Offertory is also used in the Common of Many Martyrs.

Secret. Adesto quesumus Domine muneribus

Communion. Vox in Rama audita est (after Mat. 2:18.)

Postcommunion. Votiva Domine dona percepimus

On the day of St. Thomas, Martyr
In the Sarum Use (and other English Uses) the Feast of St. Thomas was observed from 1173 until 1538 and from 1553 until 1559; it remains in the continental Roman Catholic uses to this day.   Outside of these periods this day was observed as a day within the octave of the Nativity.  Unfortunately no Sarum missals appear to be extant from the periods when the feast was not observed.  Neither have other sources predating the introduction of this feast been revealing.  It seems reasonable that the Mass would repeat the propers of the third mass of the Nativity, Puer natus (possibly with the substitution of the Gospel ‘Pastores loquebantur ad invicem’ from the second mass of the Nativity, as appears in a Clunaic missal of 1493).  This option follows the typical approach where days within an octave (such as the Epiphany or the Assumption) repeat the mass of the feast.  Alternatively, the mass of the sixth day, Dum medium silentium, might be used also on this fifth day.  (Dum medium silentium is typically labelled, in the wider western liturgical tradition, as the mass for the Sunday after Christmas.)  This would appear to be supported by the antiphons on Benedictus and Magnificat that appear in the 1544 Sarum Breviary: Ant. ad Ben. Erant Joseph et Maria (Luke 2:33); Ant. ad Mag. Puer Jesus crescebat (Luke 2:40), both of which texts appear in the Gospel for the sixth day of the Nativity.
All of the above being said, one practical approach would be to use the mass Puer natus on this day and Dum medium on the sixth day, unless the fifth day were a Sunday, in which case Dum medium would be used on both days.  [special thanks to Prof. Jesse Billett, University of Toronto, for his advice on this issue.]

Officium. Gaudeamus omnes in Domino (Ps. 63:2.)
This Officium is also used for several other feasts, notably the principal feasts of the Blessed Virgin (The Conception, the Visitation, the Assumption, and the Nativity), but also the Feasts of St. Agatha, the Translation of St. Edmund, the Translation of St. Thomas, St. Osmund, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Anne, the Translation of St. Edward,  All Saints, St. Edmund, archbishop, the Crown of the Lord, St. Genovefe, St. Antonio, and St. Gabriel.

Different sources (Roman and Dominican) apply the B-flat at different places.  The 1508 Gradual almost invariably uses B-flat throughout.  Rylands-24:331 and 335. have B-natural only at ‘Domino’.  GS: pl. s. has B-natural throughout.  LU:1368 has B-flat at ‘Domino’, but B-natural at ‘martyris’.  The Dominican Gradual (Suarez, 1950) agrees with Rylands-24.  Several other related Officia may also be compared: ‘Suscepimus Deus’ (Trinity viii, Purification), ‘Inclina Domine’ (Trinity xv) and ‘Justus es Domine (Trinity xvii).  Of course the absence of flats (or naturals) is not necessarily an indication of actual practice.  Further, the more consistent use of B-flat in 1508 may reflect a newer ‘tonal’ sensitivity developed through deeper exposure to polyphonic practice, by which I mean that there may well have been an evolution in the performance of this Officium.

In The Graduale Romanum (1908):40 the Psalm-verse is ‘Exsulate justi’; the Psalm-verse uses the first ending and the Gloria Patri uses the second ending.  The Liber Usualis does not include this Introit; presumably that of One Martyr would be used.

Prayer. Deus pro cujus ecclesia

Epistle. Heb. 5: 1-6.

Gradual. Posuisti Domine (after Ps.20:4; 3.)
This Gradual appears also in the Common of One Martyr.
The Roman Missal has ‘Ecce sacerdos magnus’.
It does not appear in the Graduale Romanum 1908
It is found at the Feast of St. Vincent in the Benevnetan Rite. See Bibiana Gattozzi, ‘St Vincent and St Peter: Location and the Musical Connection between Two Feasts in Ben 35′, Masters’ Thesis, University of Austin, 2011: 96.

Alleluya. V. Gloria et honore (Ps. 8:6-7.)
This Alleluya appears also in the Common of One Martyr.
The melody is also used for ‘Alleluya. Hic est discipulus ille’ (St. John).
The Roman Missal has ‘Alleluia. V. Ego sum pastor bonus’.
It does not appear in the Graduale Romanum 1908.

Sequence. Solenne canticum.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
This sequence uses the melody of ‘Celeste organum’, third mass of Christmas; the text appears to have been derived from the same sequence.
The alleluya and sequence can be sung without transposition.

The Crawford Missal (Rylands Latin MS 145) contains two other sequences for St. Thomas, ‘Letabundus sit jocundus’, and ‘Spe mercedis et corone’.

The York Use has the sequence ‘Spes mercedis et corone’ here.

Gospel. Homo quidam nobilis
The Roman Missal has ‘Ego sum pastor bonus’ (John 10:11-16).

Offertory. Posuisti Domine in capite ejus (after Ps. 20:4; 5 (Vulgate).)
This Offertory is from the Common of One Martyr.

Secret. Salutaris hostie munus sacrandum
The Roman Missal has ‘Munera tibi Domine dicata sanctifica’.

Communion. Magna est gloria ejus (Ps. 20:6.)
This Communion is found in the Common of One Martyr and in the Vigil of One Apostle.
In the Graduale Romanum (1908) this appears at the Vigil of One Apostle.
The Roman Missal has ‘Ego sum pastor bonus’.

Postcommunion. Adjuvet nos omnipotens et misericors Deus
The Roman Missal has ‘Hec nos communio Domine’.

The Sixth Day of the Nativity of the Lord
In the modern Roman books this Mass appears as ‘Sunday within the Octave of Christmas’.
The rubric ‘sive dominica fuerit sive non’ may perhaps have been intended to point up the distinction from the Roman Use.

Officium. Dum medium silentium (after Sap. 18:14-15. Ps. 92:1.)

Compare the Ant. on the Benedictus this day.

In The Graduale Romanum (1908):41 and the Liber Usualis:433 the Psalm-verse uses the first ending and the Gloria Patri uses the second ending.

In the Graduale Novum and the Graduale Triplex this Introit appears on the Second Sunday after Christmas.

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus : dirige actus nostros
This Prayer is also used at the Capitular Office: Breviarium [126].

Epistle. Gal. 4:1-7.

Gradual. Speciosus forma (Ps. 43:3, 2.)
In the Graduale Romanum (1908) this chant appears a tone higher, in Mode III.

Alleluya. V. Dominus regnavit. (Ps. 92:1 (Old Roman).)
This Alleluya is repeated from the second mass of Christmas Day, and is sung again on the Vigil of the Epiphany.

Sequence. Christi hodierna.
Translation © 2015 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.
The sequence follows the Alleluya well when transposed down a perfect fourth.

Gospel. Luke 2: 33-40.

Offertory. Deus enim firmavit (after Ps. 92:1.)
This Offertory is repeated from the second mass of Christmas Day, and is sung again on the vigil of the Epiphany.

Secret. Accepta Domine quesumus sacrificium
The Roman Missal has ‘Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut oculis’.

Communion. Tolle puerum et matrem (after Mat. 2: 20.)

This Communion is repeated on the Vigil of the Epiphany.

Postcommuunion. Sumpto sacrificio quesumus Domine
The Roman Missal has ‘Per hujus Domine operationem mysterii

On the day of St. Sylvester
The Proper chants appear also in the Common of One Confessor.

Officium. Sacerdotes tui Domine (after Ps. 131: 9-10, 1.)

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus

Epistle. Ecce sacerdos magnus
The Roman Missal (1543) has 2 Tim. 4: ‘Testificor coram Deo’.

Gradual. Ecce sacerdos magnus (V after Eccl. 44:20.)

Alleluya. V. Inveni David (Ps. 88:21.)
In the Graduale Romanum (1908) this Alleluia is proper to St. Silvester.

Gospel. Homo quidam peregre
The Roman Missal (1543) has Luke 12: ‘Sint lumbi vestri’.

Offertory. Inveni David servum meum (Ps. 88:21.)

Secret. Adesto Domine quesumus oblationibus
The Roman Missal (1543) has ‘Sancti tui quesumus’.

Communion. Beatus servus quem cum venerit (Mat. 24:46-47.)
In the Liber Usualis this chant is in Mode III.

Postcommunion. Quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut hodierne munus
The Roman Missal (1543) has ‘Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut der perceptis’.

On the day of the Circumcision of the Lord
The Officium, Gradual, Offertory, and Communion are repeated from the Third Mass of Christmas Day.

Prayer. Deus qui nobis nati salvatoris diem
The Roman Missal has ‘Deus qui salutis eterne beate Marie virginitate’, appropriate to the Station ‘ad sanctam Mariam trans Tyberim’.

Alleluya. V. Multiphariam olim (Heb. 1:1-2.)

The Roman MIssal omits ‘patribus’.
In the Graduale Romanum (1908):44-45 and the Graduale juxta ritum sacri ordinis praedicatorum (1950):39 the music beginning at ‘in Filio’, which is a transposed repeition of the ‘Alleluya’, appears at the original pitch, such that the verse ends on the finalis, G.  In the Graduale Novum (2001):39 the verse ends, like the Sarum version, on C.  (This version, appearing as it does in many Euopean manuscripts, seems to be the more ‘authentic’ one.)

Sequence.  Eya recolamus.
Notker of St. Gall.
Translation © 2014 by Matthew Carver.  Used with permission.
The Alleluya and sequence can be sung together a perfect fourth below the notated pitch.

The York Use repeats the sequence ‘Letabundus’ here.

Gospel. Luke 2:21.

Secret. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut per hec munera
The Roman Missal has ‘Muneribus nostris quesumus Domine.

Postcommunion. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut quod nostri
The Roman Missal has ‘Hec nos communio Domine.

On the Vigil of the Epiphany
The Officium, Gradual, Alleluya, and Offertory are taken from the Second Mass of Christmas.  The Communion is taken from the Sixth Day of the Nativity.

On the Night of the Epiphany
Lectio.  Factum est autem.
This Lesson is duplicated from the Breviary.

On the Day of the Epiphany
Officium.  Ecce advenit Dominator (after Mal. 3:1?; Ps. 71:2.)
‘. . . a translation from the Greek (c.f. Lib Pont. i, 289) . . .’, Peter Wagner, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies (London: Plainsong and Medieval Music Society. 1907) I:61.

Gradual.  Omnes de Saba (Isaiah 60: 6, 1.)

Alleluya. V. Vidimus stellam ejus (after Mat. 2: 2.)

Sequence. Epiphaniam Domino
Trans. Plainsong Hymn Melodies: (iii.)
The Alleluya and sequence can be sung together without transposition; or the Alleluya can be transposed up a perfect fourth.

Offertory.  Reges Tharsis (Ps. 71: 10-11.)

Communion. Vidimus stellam ejus (after Mat. 2: 2.)


The Hereford Use includes varied sequences within the Octave of the Epiphany: ‘Verbum bonum’, ‘Letabundus’, ‘Gaude virgo ecclesia’, and ‘Gaudete vos fideles’.

Sunday within the Octave of the Epiphany
The chant propers are repeated from the Day of the Epiphany. The Roman Use has the following Mass ‘In excelso throno’ here.  From here until Septuagesima the Roman Use is one week ahead of the Sarum Use in regards to chant propers, prayers and readings.  The York Use agrees with the Sarum Use, whereas the Dominican Use agrees with with the Roman Use.

Gospel. Vidit Johannes Jesum (John 1:29-34.)
The Roman Use places this Gospel on the Octave Day (known more recently also as the Commemoration of the Baptism of our Lord Jesus Christ)

The Octave of the Epiphany
The chant propers are repeated from the Day of the Epiphany.

Lesson from Isaiah.
This troped Lesson is found in a large number of Medieval missals from across Europe.

Gospel. Venit Jesus a Galilea. (Matt. 3:13-17.)
The Roman Use has the Gospel Vidit Johannes Jesum (see above). The Roman format conforms to the chronology, so that the account of child Jesus (Luke 2:42-52)(see below) is read before the account of Jesus’ baptism.

The First Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany
Officium.  In excelso throno (Ps. 99:1)
‘. . . a translation from the Greek . . . or else an allusion to Isaiah vi, 1.’, Peter Wagner, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies (London: Plainsong and Medieval Music Society. 1907) I:61.
The Roman Use has the following Mass, ‘Omnis terra’.

This Officium appears also on the Feast of the Transfiguration.


Gradual. Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel (after Ps. 71: 18, 3 (Old Roman).)
The Graduale Romanum (1908) and other Roman and Dominican sources have ‘qui facit mirabilia’.  However ‘facis’ appears to be very widespread amongst English sources: Sarum, York, and Hereford.  ‘facis’ gives the sense: ‘<thou> who alone doest great wonders’.

Compare also the Prayer from Missa pro prelatis et subditis: ‘Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui facis mirabilia magna solus . . .’

Interestingly, the Second Sarum Responsory for Trinity is ‘Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel qui facit mirabilia solus’ whereas here the standard CANTUS text has ‘facis’.

Alleluya. V. Jubilate Deo omnis terra (Ps. 99:2.)

Both the Hereford and York Uses include Sequences on the  Sundays after the Octave of the Epiphany.  The sequences that appear are ‘Letabundus’, ‘Celeste organum’, and ‘Voce jubiantes’.

Gospel. Cum factus esset Jesus (Luke 2:42-52.)

Offertory.  Jubilate Deo omnis terra (Ps. 99: 1-2 (Old Roman).)

This and the following Offertory are two of only a handful of proper mass chants that contain a substantial text repetition.

This Offertory appears also on Monday in Lent 4.

Communion.  Fili quid fecisti nobis sic (Luke 2: 48-49.)

Second Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany
The Roman Use has the following Mass, ‘Adorate Deum’.

Officum.  Omnis terra adoret te (after Ps 65:4; 1-2 (Old Roman).)

Gradual. Misit Dominus verbum suum (Ps. 106: 20-21 (Old Roman).)

Alleluya. V. Laudate Deum omnes angeli ejus

Offertory. Jubilate Deo universa terra. (Ps. 65: 1-2, 5
This and the previous Offertory are two of only a handful of proper mass chants that contains a substantial text repetition.
This Offertory is repeated in the fourth week after Easter.
The Vulgate and Old Roman both have ‘omnis terra’.

The question of the flat at ‘terra’ is an interesting one. B-flat makes sense in relation to the earlier inflection B-flat-A at ‘Jubilate’; but B-natural reflects the design of the following ‘terra’; either choice can be rationalized, and both appear in the sources.

Communion. Dicit Dominus, Implete ydrias aqua (after John 2: 7-11).
The Graduale Romanum (1908):55. has ‘Cum gustasset’.

The Third Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany
Officium. Adorate Deum omnes angeli ejus (Ps. 96: 7-8; 1.)

Gradual. Timebunt gentes (Ps. 101: 16-17 (Old Roman).)

This Gradual appears also on the 16th Sunday after Trinity.

Alleluya. V. Dominus regnavit  (Ps. 96: 1.)

Offertory. Dextera Domini (Ps. 117: 16 (Old Roman).)

Communion. Mirabantur omnes (after Luke 4: 17.)

The Fourth Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany
The chant propers are repeated from the previous Sunday.

The Fifth Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany
The chant propers are repeated from the Third Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany.

The Collect and Readings of this Sunday are used for the Fifth Sunday after the Epiphany in the BCP.

The Tridentine Roman Use includes an additional Mass, the Sixth Sunday after the Epiphany, with the Gospel ‘Simile est regnum coelorum grano sinapis’.

Septuagesima Sunday
Officium. Circundederunt me (Ps. 17: 5, 6 ,7; 2-3 (Old Roman).)

Gradual. Adjutor in opportunitatibus  (after Ps. 9: 10-11; 19.)

Tract. De profundis clamavi (Ps. 129: 1-4.)
In the first Verse, ‘vocem’ is from the Vulgate.  In the second Verse, ‘orationem’ is from the Old Roman.
Although at ‘intendentes’ no flats appear in the Sarum or York sources consulted thus far, they do appear in the Graduale Romanum 1908 and in the Dominican Gradual 1950 (final two Bs in the melisma).  They do not appear, however, in the Graduale Novum 2010.

Offertory. Bonum est confiteri. (Ps. 91: 2.)

V. Quam magnificata sunt opera (Ps. 91: 6.)

V. Ecce inimici tui (Ps. 91: 10.)

Communion. Illumina faciem tuam (Ps. 30: 17 (Old Roman).)

Sexagesima Sunday
Officium. Exurge, quare obdormis (Ps. 43: 23-26.)

Gradual. Sciant gentes (after Ps. 82:19, 14.)

Tract. Commovisti (Ps. 59: 4, 6 (Old Roman).)

Offertory. Perfice gressus meos (Ps. 16: 5, 6-7.)

This Offertory appears also on the sixth Sunday after Trinity.

V. Exaudi Domine (Ps. 16: 1.)

V. Custodi me Domine (P. 16: 8, 13.)

Communion. Introibo ad altare Dei (Ps. 42: 4.)

Quinquagesima Sunday
Officium. Esto michi in Deum (Ps. 30: 3-4, 2 (Old Roman).)

Gradual. Tu es Deus (Ps. 76: 15, 16 (Old Roman).)
While the older Sarum sources consistently have B-natural at ‘tuam’, the later 1508 gradual has B-flat, as do The Graduale Romanum 1908 and the Dominican Gradual 1950, perhaps reflecting the tonal sensibilities of later generations.  The Graduale Novum 2010 has C, following the German style.

Tract. Jubilate Domino omnis terra. (Ps. 99: 2-3 (Old Roman).)
In the Graduale Romanum (1908) a new Verse begins at ‘Scitote’.

Offertory. Benedictus es Domine (Ps. 118: 12-13.)
This is one of only a handful of proper mass chants that contains a substantial text repetition.

V. Beati immaculati in via (Ps. 118: 1-2.)

V. Aufer a plebe tua (Ps. 118: 22, 176.)
This Verse does not appear in the Sextuplex.

Communion. Manducaverunt et saturati sunt nimis (Ps. 77:29-30.)

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