Companion to B: Temporale

Title page of the Sarum Antiphonale 1519-1520
The upper panel represents the Virgin and Child together with the three kings, patrons of the city of Cologne.  The arms of the city of Cologne are in the upper left corner; the device of the printer, Francis Byrckman in the upper right.  The central panel represents Saint Ursula and the eleven thousand virgins, reputedly martryed at Cologne.  The lower panel represents the Maccabees, martyrs, for whom a shrine was kept at the Church of Saint Andrew, Cologne. (Procter and Wordsworth, Breviarium ad usum Sarum, Vol. III, p. lxxi.)

The Rubrics, or Pie, originally a separate volume, have been distributed through the course of the Temporale where it is most convenient. They indicate the principal events in the calendar for each year beginning with a different day of the week (A-G). During the season of the moveable feasts (Septuagesima through to Deus omnium) the possible arrangements of the calendar are multiplied to 35 on account of the potential for Easter to fall on any day between March 22 and April 25.

Each ‘history’ is identified by the incipit of the first responsory of Matins. The Advent ‘history’ Isaiah is named by the responsory Aspiciens a longe.

The image is of the Annunciation.

First Sunday of Advent
Principal Privileged Sunday

The image is of the Annunciation. These images are unusual in that they include a crowd of onlookers. More typically the Annunciation is portrayed as a private event.

Ave Maria.   cf. Luke 1:28.
In the Breviary 1531, the Ave Maria prayer includes the non-scriptural continuation, ‘Sancta Maria, mater Dei, ora pro nobis’ &c, whereas most other Sarum sources omit this continuation.
The rubric ‘Finito ultimo responsorio . . . ‘ on page 64 indicates that there is no repetition of the prayers Pater noster and Ave Maria before the commencement of Lauds, but that normally Lauds is a direct continuation of Matins.

V. Deus in adjutorium meum intende (Ps. 69:2)
The rubrics do not make clear whether the Choristers also make the Sign of the Cross here.
. . . in pectore vel coram facie sua . . .
The Sign of the Cross in those days was typically a small gesture on the forehead (as a reminder of the mark of the cross received in baptism), or less commonly on the breast; not the familiar form of today that traces a large cross from forehead to breast and from shoulder to shoulder.  The episcopal blessing of the boy-bishop on the eve of the Holy Innocents (406-407) makes a clear distinction between ‘in fronte’ i.e. forehead and ‘in pectore’ i.e. breast.
Tertullian (d. ca. 250): “In all our travels and movements, in all our coming in and going out, in putting on our shoes, at the bath, at the table, in lighting our candles, in lying down, in sitting down, whatever employment occupies us, we mark our foreheads with the sign of the cross” (De corona, 30).
See Catholic Encyclopedia, ‘Sign of the Cross‘.
However, in The Myroure of oure Ladye (ed. 1872):80, we find these instructions ‘ye begynne wyth youre honde at the hedde downewarde, and then to the lyfte syde, and after to the righte syde . . . and after this, ye bryng your hande to your breste’.

The Exeter Ordinal has ‘officium exequatur . . . signet pectus suum signo crucis’.

The Compline Hymn Cultor Dei appears ambiguous: does it suggest a single cross covering both forehead and breast, or separate crosses?: ‘Fac cum vocante somno, Castum petis cubile : Frontem locumque cordis, Crucis figura signet.’  (When sleep is calling, ask thee purity in bed :  let the form of the cross be signed on the forehead and the place of the heart). [390].

The legend of St. Faith (October 6) describes the saint as ‘armata sancte crucis vexillo, fronte, ore, et pectore’ (armed with the banner of the holy cross, on forehead, mouth, and breast).  This is the triple crossing, most familiarly used at the proclamation of the Gospel.  (‘Fronte’ here is unambiguously ‘forehead’.)

The second lesson on the fifth day of the octave of the Holy Name indicates how the sign of the cross on the forehead is a New Testament reflection of the tetragrammon worn on the forehead of the high priest of the temple in Jerusalem (Exod. 28:36-38).

I would speculate at this point that the essential concept of the sign of the cross is on the forehead, but because the priest in blessing the people would make a large sign of the cross over the people, the people would tend to mimic the large cross themselves, rather than the essential cross on the forehead; further, the large sign of the cross, by reflecting the physical proportions of the body, seems to represent a kind of spiritual shield being indicated across the whole body.

It should also be noted that inthe rubrics for the Canon of the mass the priest is instructed to make the sign of the cross ‘in facie‘ before the commemoration of the dead (1178), ‘in facie‘ after saying the communion verse (1186), ‘in fronte‘ after the final postcommunion (1186), and ‘in facie sua‘ at the final departure from the altar (1187).

Magno tonali: the Great Tonary, or the Sarum Tonary.

1 Ant. Benedictus (Ps. 143:1)
The music indicates that the Psalm-intonation is omitted at the beginning of the Psalm-Tone in this case.  This provides a continuity between the intonation of the  Antiphon and the continuation of the same Verse in the Psalm.  However, in the Psalter [359]. the indication is that the Psalm-intonation is used. It would seem that there is some variation in the practice.

. . . sed in iij. . . . sed raro in iiij.
The meaning seems to be that if the Antiphon begins with the first word of the following Psalm, then it is convenient to omit the Psalm-intonation and join the first phrase of the Psalm directly to the end of the Antiphon-intonation. But if the Antiphon-intonation carries as far as two or (rarely) three words, then it is appropriate to make a separate phrase of the continuation of the Psalm, and thus employ the Psalm-intonation.

. . . Et quod psalmus non incipiatur, antequam illa variatio perficiatur.
The Choir is not to begin singing the Psalm until the leader has completed the Psalm-tone ending, that is, the entire first verse. This is different from most Psalm chanting today, in which the Choir joins the leader after the mediation of the first verse. Presumably in those days the choristers had to wait until they had heard the ending before joining in the Psalm. (Today choristers can see the Psalm-tone ending in their chant books.) In practice, therefore, the first verse of the Psalm will be sung by a leader on one side of the choir; then the Psalm will be taken up by the other side of the choir; and then will be continued by the choir alternating by sides.

. . . reincipiatur antiphona a succentore vel a cantore . . .
This rubric indicates that after the conclusion of the Psalm(s) the Antiphon is intoned by a leader and then continued by the full Choir. This differs from typical contemporary practice in which the Antiphon following the Psalm(s) is sung from its beginning by the full Choir.

5 Ant. Lauda Hierusalem (Ps. 147:1)
The intonation uses A rather than the B-flat of the antiphon, providing a smoother connection to the beginning of the Psalm Tone. This variation is highly unusual.  Further, the antiphon itself, unlike regular mode IV antiphons, ends on A.

This antiphon belongs to a group of ferial antiphons identified as Mode IV.vii, all of which bear the characteristic B-flat-A (or F-E) gesture.  (See the Sarum Tonary).  There is disagreement amongst sources as to how these antiphons are to be related to their psalm tones.  While the practice outlined here is the transposition of the antiphon up a fourth so that the finalis of the antiphon matches the reciting tone of the psalm, other sources suggest different approaches.  Indeed, the Sarum Tonary itself may imply that these antiphons would normally be sung ending on E, not A.  Crede michi declares that the antiphon should be sung at the lower pitch, E (Elami).  This practice is to be seen also in the Dominican Vesperarum Liber (1900).  On the other hand, the Solesmes Antiphonale Monasticum (1934, 2006) has the antiphons ending on A, but attaches them to a ‘Tonus irregularis’ in which the psalm-tone itself includes B-flat.

. . . Rector chori prosequatur hoc modo . . .
This is the beginning of the psalm-tone. Seeing that the text of the antiphon intonation is continued by the opening words of the psalm, it will be found convenient for the leader to sing the intonation of the antiphon and the beginning of the psalm-tone as a single phrase.
After the Ruler has intoned ‘Hierusalem Dominum’ as indicated, the Ruler’s side will continue and complete the first verse of the psalm. The other side will sing the next verse, and so on in alternation.

The Neuma follows directly, commencing with the beginning of the final syllable of the antiphon. It is shown separately here in order to indicate its theoretical relation to the antiphon so that the same principle can be applied in other cases. The eight Neumas, one for each mode, are found at 80*.  Because this antiphon ends on A, the neuma is transposed up a fourth.

. . . ad altare converso . . .
In the Sarum Rite recitation is typically done facing the altar (as an offering to the Lord).

. . . non cantando . . .
i.e. not melodically inflected. This is a reminder not to sing the chapter in the manner of the epistle lesson at mass.

Chapter. Erit in novissimis.
The example provided here does not illustrate the full nature of the tone for the chapter. The chapter-tone is the same as the regular lesson-tone at matins. Every sentence ends with an inflection: sentences ending on weak syllable inflect to A; sentences ending on strong syllables inflect A B; interrogative sentences end with the formula C C C . . . B A B (B) C.

Resp. Ecce dies veniunt (Jer. 23:5; 6b; V. 6a.)
The verses are based on the standard mode-VIII melody, but the ending is modified to match the melody of the responsory, ‘in terra’.

. . . ad gradum chori.
Soloists singing responsory verses at the quire step face the altar.

Hymn. Conditor alme syderum. Anon, 7th. c.
Perf. trans. J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, 1851: 10.
Schol. trans. R. A. Knox, The Westminster Hymnal, 1939: 1.

The Sarum sources do not appear to provide any specific directions for performance of the hymn. We may presume that it was begun by a leader, and continued by that same side of the choir to the end of the first verse. Subsequent verses, including the doxology would then be sung alternately. Would the ‘Amen’ be sung by the side that sings the last verse, or by the other side, or by both together? Whilst a definitive answer is lacking at present, the editor suggests that both sides sing the ‘Amen’ together.

The modern Dominican tradition indicates that the first phrase of a hymn is to be intoned by a leader. See Hymnarium O.P., (2013).
LU:234 begins E C E G G A F G, a commonly found variant.

V. Rorate celi (Is. 45:8.)
The Roman Use divides the verse after ‘justum’.

The employment of a silent response is an unfamiliar practice in our day. The silent response is employed at matins, lauds, vespers, and compline–whenever the versicle ends with a melisma. (Palmer, Order of Vespers:12, indicates a sung response.)

In York Use the versicle is sung by a boy; the response is sung an octave lower by the whole choir, at vespers, compline, matins and lauds.

Ant. Ecce nomen Domini (Is. 30:27; cf. Sap. 1:7)

The leader will sing the entire first verse of the Magnificat, after which the other side of the choir will take up the second verse.

From the end of the canticle and antiphon to the end of the service the following form is used (on Sundays and feasts):

V. Dominus vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo.

This versicle, by tradition, is said only by those in holy orders (implying that ministers bear an intermediary role). Otherwise, the V. Domine exaudi orationem meam. R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat. is said. (BCP: O Lord, hear my prayer. R. And let my cry come unto thee. D-R: V. Hear my prayer, O Lord. R. And let my cry come unto thee.)

V. Oremus.  Proper prayer of the day or feast.

V. Dominus vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo.

V. Benedicamus Domino.
There is no substantial evidence that R. ‘Deo gratias’ is to be sung at the end of either of the ‘Benedicamus Domino’ that conclude vespers and lauds of the canonical hours. In contrast, it is evident that ‘Deo gratias’ was an audible, sung response at the conclusion of prime, terce, sext, none and compline. It would seem that the response ‘Deo gratias’ was made only silently at vespers and lauds, and we may presume that this practice is related to the use of more ornate melodies at those hours.

Memorials as appointed, each consisting of:


Versicle and Response



V. Dominus vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo.

V. Benedicamus Domino.

When there is a procession after vespers, the procession apparently follows the first Benedicamus and is followed by the second Benedicamus: The Exeter Ordinal:148.(Sunday in the Octave of Easter) indicates ‘Primum Benedicamus dicatur a tribus pueris more solito in minoribus duplicibus festis.  Deinde fiat processio . . .’  After the return to the Quire, ‘Secundum Benedicamus a duobus pueris.’

The versicle ‘Dominus vobiscum’–wherever it may appear–is properly said only by those in major holy orders (deacons, priests, and bishops). In individual or group lay-recitation it is appropriate to substitute ‘V. Domine exaudi orationem meam. R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat.’ followed by ‘V. Oremus.’  (as is done in the Sarum Books of Hours). The V. and R. may be sung simply on the reciting tone of the following prayer, or may use the inflections of the preces (as at lauds, prime, vespers and compline), [188].

In the Performing Edition this alternate text is ‘V. Hear my prayer, O Lord. R. And let my cry come unto thee. V. Let us pray.’

In the Scholarly Edition this alternate text is ‘V. O Lord, hear my prayer. R. And let my cry come unto thee. V. Let us pray.’

At vespers and lauds when the preces are not said, the melody for ‘Oremus’ is C.bC.C. at the prayer of the day and at the memorial(s).  When the preces are said, and at compline and prime and chapter and the little hours, the melody is F.F.D.

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam

The Manner of Concluding the Prayers
[This section would more logically appear before the versicle on 15.] The object of this section is to indicate the proper endings for the prayers that appear throughout the Breviary and Missal. In order to save space, the endings of the prayers are seldom given in full. The choice of ending is dependent upon the person(s) of God to whom the prayer is addressed. The correct endings are intended to be memorized in accordance with these rubrics.  (It should be noted also that if the full conclusion is used it will always carry on to the final close, ‘Per omnia secula seculorum.’  The response will be ‘Amen.’)

The following is a complete list of the terminations and their translations.
(a) A prayer addressed to the Father:
Latin: Per Dóminum nostrum Jesum Christum Fílium tuum qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitáte Spíritus Sancti Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
English Scholarly Edition: Through our Lord Jesus Christ thy Son, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition: Through Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end.
Short form:
 Latin: Per Dóminum nostrum Jesum Christum Fílium tuum.
English Scholarly Edition: Through our Lord Jesus Christ thy Son.
English Performing Edition: Through Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord.

(b) A prayer addressed to the Father but mentioning Christ near the beginning:
Latin: Per eúndem Dóminum nostrum Jesum Christum Fílium tuum qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitáte Spíritus Sancti Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
English Scholarly Edition:
Through the same our Lord Jesus Christ thy Son, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition:
Through the same Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end.
Short form:
Latin: Per eúndem Dóminum nostrum Jesum Christum Fílium tuum.
English Scholarly Edition:Through the same our Lord Jesus Christ thy Son.
English Performing Edition:Through the same Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord. .

(c) A prayer addressed to the Father, that concludes by mentioning the Son:
 Latin: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitáte Spíritus Sancti Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
English Scholarly Edition:Who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition:Who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end.
[No short form.]

(d) A prayer addressed to the Son but mentioning the Father:
Latin: Qui tecum vivis et regnas in unitáte Spíritus Sancti Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum. 
English Scholarly Edition: Who livest and reignest with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition: Who livest and reignest with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end.
[No short form.]

(e) A prayer addressed to the Son:
Latin: Qui cum Deo Patre et Spíritu Sancto vivis et regnas in unitáte Spíritus Sancti Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
English Scholarly Edition: Who livest and reignest with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition: Who livest and reignest with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end.
[No short form.]

(f) In a prayer which mentions the Holy Ghost,
Latin: the phrase ‘in unitáte Spíritus Sancti’ is replaced by ‘in unitáte eundem Spíritus Sancti’
 English: the phrase ‘in the unity of the Holy Ghost’ is replaced by ‘in the unity of the same Holy Ghost’.

(g) A Prayer addressed to the Father but mentioning the Trinity:
Latin: In qua vivis et regnas Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
 English Scholarly Edition:  In which livest and reignest God, for ever and ever.
 English Performing Edition:  In which livest and reignest one God, world without end.
[No short form.]

(h) A Prayer addressed to the Trinity:
Latin: Qui vivis et regnas Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
English Scholarly Edition: Who livest and reignest God, for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition: Who livest and reignest one God, world without end.
[No short form.]

(i) A Prayer addressed to the Son but mentioning the Holy Ghost:
Latin: Qui cum Patre et eódem Spíritu Sancto vivis et regnas Deus. Per ómnia sécula seculórum.
English Scholarly Edition: Who with the Father and the same Holy Ghost livest and reignest God, for ever and ever.
English Performing Edition: Who with the Father and the Same Holy Ghost livest and reignest one God, world without end.
[No short form.]

(Short endings are used for all but the last of a group of memorials.)

In the Performing Edition all endings, when possible, are printed in full.

The following are the sources of the incipits given in this section.
Concede nos famulos (Common of Feasts of the blessed Virgin and office of the Virgin.)
Deus qui miro ordine (St. Michael.)
Deus qui de beate Marie (Memorial of St. Mary in Advent.)
Largiere nobis clementissime (St. Mary Magdalene.)
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus dirige actus (Prime on Sundays.)
Da nobis quesumus Domine imitari que colimus (St. Stephen.)
Fidelium Deus (Vespers, Office of the Dead.)
Deus qui sanctam crucem (Memorial of the Holy Cross.)
Excita quesumus Domine potentiam (First Sunday in Advent.)
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui dedisti famulis (Trinity Sunday.)
Proficiat nobis ad salutem (Trinity Sunday, Postcommunion.)
Deus qui corda (Memorial of the Holy Ghost.)

In addition to the above endings, we occasionally find ‘Per Christum’ or ‘Per Christum Dominum’, which is an abbreviation of ‘Per Christum Dominum nostrum’. See for example the prayer ‘Eternam ac justissimam’ at the Easter Vigil, page 717 of the Latin Noted Missal.

V. Benedicamus Domino
There will normally be two ‘Benedicamus Domino’, one to conclude the service proper, and another to conclude the memorials.  In cases where there are no memorials or procession, there will be only a single ‘Benedicamus Domino’.  See Sarum Customary LCC-F:40.4.
There is no indication in these sources of an audible response ‘Deo gratias’. Compare the versicle after the Hymn, above, 12.  However, the response ‘Deo gratias.  Alleluya’ is sung from Easter until Trinity Sunday.
The Sarum Customary LCC-F-40.4. makes reference to ‘Deo gratias’, but gives no indication as to whether it is said aloud or silently.  Note in contrast that ‘Deo gratias’ is indicated as a regular (i.e. aloud) response at the conclusion of the said office of the Blessed Virgin.
[The Dominican Rite omits the ‘Benedicamus Domino’ before the memorials; there is only a single ‘Benedicamus Domino’ at the conclusion of Vespers and Lauds.]

There are besides the short endings which are typically used for the prayers that follow after the first prayer, when a number of prayers follow in close proximity; that is ‘Per (eundem) Christum Dominum nostrum.’ Memorials use these abbreviated endings.

Memorial of Saint Mary
Ant. Ave Maria gratia plena (after Luke 12:26.)

Three antiphons are used at the memorial of St. Mary in Advent; ‘Ave Maria’ and ‘Beata es Maria’ are based on the words of the Angel, while ‘Ne timeas Maria’ is based on the words of Elizabeth.  The latter two also appear as antiphons to the Magnificat, on the first and second Sundays in Advent.  ‘Ave Maria’ is privileged, being used on first vespers of Sundays, and on feasts of nine lessons.  ‘Ave Maria’ appears not to be used at the canonical hours, apart from the memorial.  In other uses ‘Ave Maria’ typically appears at the Benedictus on the fourth Sunday of Advent, or at the Feast of the Annunciation.

‘ . . . et in sabbato . . . ‘ i. e. at first vespers of Sunday.

V. Egreditur virga (Isaiah 11:1.)
In the Latin text ‘Jesse’ takes an accent on the final syllable (being a Hebrew word). In the English text ‘Jesse” takes an accent on the first syllable.

Unlike the versicle after the hymn, here the response is sung aloud.

The versicle is sung on the ‘low’ note, F; the prayer on the ‘high’ note, C.

Prayer. Deus qui de beate Marie semper Virginis utero.
In the Psalter, at Prime of the said office of the Virgin in Advent, the more common conclusion is employed: ‘Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum’.

Vespers of St. Mary
Besides the canonical (full or great) office which is sung daily, is a parallel, second (or little) office of devotion to the blessed Virgin. This office is said (i.e. sung ‘recto tono’) each day, except on days when the full service of the Virgin takes place in the chancel as the canonical office. This ‘said’ office is similar to but not the same as ‘hours of the Virgin’ that is found in the Books of Hours.
‘ . .  . it is not unlikely that its diffusion is largely due to the marked devotion to the Blessed Virgin which is characteristic of the Church in England under the guidance of St. Dunstan and St. Ethelwold. . . .  In the eleventh century we learn from St. Peter Damian that it was already commonly recited amongst the secular clergy of Italy and France, and it was through his influence that the practice of reciting it in choir, in addition to the Great Office, was introduced into several Italian monasteries. . . . The Austin Canons also retained it, and, perhaps through their influence, in the course of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, it developed from a private devotion into part of the daily duty of the secular clergy as well. By the fourteenth century the recital of the Little Office had come to be an almost universal practice and was regarded as obligatory on all the clergy.’ ‘Little Office of Our Lady’, Catholic Encyclopedia,
In the Roman Catholic Church the Little Office as an epilogue to the Divine Office was suppressed in 1910. It continues to be said among Carmelites and Carthusians.

. . . sine nota . . .
‘without note’ This is an indication that vespers (and matins and lauds) of St. Mary are to be sung ‘recto tono’, on a single, low pitch (such as F).

. . . in capella que dicitur Salve. . . .
The Salve Chapel is (normally) the Lady Chapel. It is so named from the Mass of our Lady ‘Salve sancta parens’. (Christopher Wordsworth, Ceremonies and Processions of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901):221.). In Salisbury Cathedral it is now known as the Trinity Chapel, and is located at the extreme east end of the Church. (‘From this day [September 28, 1225] until the Reformation, the principal eastern altar, although dedicated to the Holy Trinity and All the Saints, was used for the daily mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary.’ Tim Tatton-Brown and John Cook, Salisbury Cathedral: The Making of a Medieval Masterpiece (Londons: Scala, 2009):48.)

[The Exeter Ordinal appoints ‘Pater noster’ to be said before vespers and matins of the Canonical Office, but ‘Ave Maria’ before vespers and matins of the the daily Office of the Virgin.]

Ant. Prophete predicaverunt.
This antiphon appears in the full service as the second antiphon at lauds of Wednesday (Quattuor temporum) in the third week of Advent.
The selection of psalms is chosen to avoid duplicating  those of the full service that is sung immediately before vespers of the Virgin is said.

‘. . . quando fit de Sancta Maria commemoratio in conventu.’ Although this language seems to refer to the Commemoration of St. Mary, that is the weekly sung Commemoration that normally would take place on Saturdays, here ‘commemoratio’ refers to the daily observance of the said Office of the Virgin.

Chap. Ecce virgo concipiet

V. Diffusa est gratia (Ps 44:3.)

Ant. Ne timeas Maria (Luke 1:30.)
This antiphon is taken from the antiphon to the Magnificat at second vespers of the first Sunday of Advent.

Prayer. Concede nos famulos tuos

The following memorials are attached to the daily (said) office of the Virgin. They are thus said, not sung.

Memorial of the Holy Ghost
In modern Roman Catholic practice this memorial forms part of the Chaplet of the Holy Spirit and of the Pentecost Novena.

This memorial is omitted during the octave of Pentecost.

Ant. Veni Sancte Spiritus
The text is the from first part of the antiphon for first vespers of Pentecost.
Although it has no CANTUS number, it is not unique to Sarum.

V. Emitte spiritum (Ps 103:30.)
The Vulgate has ‘Emittes’

Prayer. Deus qui corda fidelium
The Prayer is found in the modern Roman Missal as the third Collect at the votive Mass of the blessed Virgin after Pentecost.
Tr. Adrian Fortescue, Roman Missal, 3rd. ed. 1922.

Memorial of the Saint of the Place
This Memorial consists of the Antiphon on Magnificat (or Benedictus at Lauds) from the Feast of the Saint, together with the Versicle following the Hymn (at Vespers or Lauds as appropriate), and the Prayer of the day.
It should be noted, however, that on some saints’ days the Antiphon at Second Vespers is different from those at First Vespers and at Lauds. In this case one could choose between the two Vespers Antiphons, or one could alternate. There seems to be no specific Sarum rubric covering this occurrence.
The Church of Sarum has the peculiarity of being dedicated to the Virgin, which means that a daily Memorial of the Saint of the Place is redundant, seeing that a Memorial of the Virgin will already have occurred on any day in which the Full Service of the Virgin is not offered. Likewise, in locations that are not dedicated, this Memorial would properly be omitted. For this reason the rubics are directed to Benefices and Parish Churches.

Memorial of Relics
If the location of the Office has no relics, it would be appropriate to omit this Memorial.

Ant. Corpora sanctorum (after Eccles. 44:14.)
This text is used for the Alleluya at Mass in the Common of Many Martyrs.

V. Beati qui habitant (Ps 83:5.)

Prayer. Propitiare quesumus
Adapted from the Feast of Relics.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens
Adapted from the Feast of Relics.

Memorial of All Saints
This memorial will be said (recto tono) if it follows the daily (said) Office of the Virgin. It will be sung if it follows the Vespers or Lauds of the Day.

Ant. Ecce Dominus veniet (see Zechariah 14:5-6.)

This antiphon is borrowed from Lauds of this day.

V. Ecce apparebit Dominus (see Apoc. 14:14; Deut. 33:2; Jude 1:14.)

Prayer. Conscientias nostras quesumus Domine

Memorial of Peace
This Memorial is an indulgenced prayer of Pius IX, 1848.

Ant. Da pacem Domine (after Eccles. 50:25.)

V. Domine fiat pax. (see Ps. 121:7.)

Prayer. Deus a quo sancta desideria
This Prayer originates as the Collect for the Mass for Peace; it is the source for the Evening Collect for Peace in the BCP.

Prayer. Deus auctor pacis et amator
This Prayer originates as the Postcommunion for the Mass for Peace; it is the source for the Morning Collect for Peace in the BCP.

At Compline of Advent
V. Converte nos (Ps. 84:5.)

V. Deus in adjutorium

Ant. Miserere (Ps. 4:2.)

Psalm 30 is abbreviated here; only the first 6 verses of 26 are included. Evidently the intention is to include ‘In manus tuas . . .’ at Compline. The full Psalm is sung on Mondays at Matins.

. . . nullum psalmum exaltando . . .
This is to indicate that even if the singing pitch has dropped through the course of the Psalms, it should not be interrupted to restore the pitch.

Chap. Tu in nobis

Hymn. Te lucis ante terminum
Anon, 7th century.
Trans. J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, 9.
This is the ordinary Hymn throughout the year. The appropriate variable doxologies are not printed in the Breviarium 1531 or the Hymnale Sarum, or in the Antiphonale 1519.

V. Custodi nos Domine (after Ps 16:8.) Old Roman
This versicle is often divided thus in non–Sarum use:
V. Cutodi nos Domine ut pupillam oculi.
R. Sub umbra alarum tuarum protege nos.

Ant. Veni Domine visitare

The Preces at Compline largely follow the pattern of Prime.

Pater noster.  The leader does not say the beginning ‘Pater noster’ aloud, but all commence the Lord’s Prayer silently. Ave Maria may also be said here.

V. In pace in idipsum (Ps 4:9.)

Credo in Deum.

V. Benedictus es Domine (cf. Dan 3:56)

The Confiteor and Misereatur form a dialogue between Priest and Choir, following which the Priest pronounces the Absolutionem.  It is normally led by the most senior Priest.

The Sarum sources do not provide directly for the Confiteor etc. in the case of no priest being present, or in the case of only two persons, or the case of only one person being present.  The Dominican breviaries make provision for one person alone, using first person where appropriate, and omitting the Absolutionem.  On the other hand the Roman (Franciscan) sources indicate that even with only one person present the Confiteor, Misereatur and Absolutionem remain unchanged (though of course not repeated).  See for example Breviarium Romanum (Paris, Jehan Petit, 1529) Psalter:10v.:  ‘Confessio sic fit quando a solo dicuntur hore.’  It will be noted here also that the Roman version of the absolution is different, beginning ‘Indulgentiam et absolutionem . . .’.

The Sarum books of hours omit the Confiteor, Misereatur, and Absolutionem.

V. Deus tu conversus (Ps 84:7-8.)

V. Fiat misericordia (Ps 32:22.)

V. Domine Deus virtutem (Ps 70:20.)

V. Domine exaudi orationem (Ps 101:2.)

Prayer. Illumina quesumus Domine
Fr. Hunwicke (Fr Hunwicke’s Mutual Enrichement, 18 December, 2022), suggests with some caution that in the Gregorian Sacramentary this prayer was under the heading ‘Incipiunt orationes matutinales’; in this context it asks God to ‘push away’ the dangers of the night as dawn approaches. Its form in the Gregorian Sacramentary is ‘Illumina quaesumus Domine tenebras nostras : et totius noctis insidias tu repelle propitius’.
This prayer is also in the Gelasian Sacramentary.
Cramner expanded this prayer as the third collect at Evensong in the BCP.
This prayer is not part of the current Roman compline.

V. Exaudi Domine vocem. (Ps 26:7.)

. . . sine nota . . .
This is thought to mean not ‘without note’ but rather ‘recto tono’, that is on a single pitch (such as F) but without any melodic inflections.

V. Exurge Domine (Ps 43:26.) Old Roman.

V. Domine Deus virtutem (Ps 79:20.)

V. Domine exaudi orationem (Ps 101:2.)

For the Peace of the Church
The devotion ‘For the Peace of the Church’ is separate from compline proper.  It is repeated at the morning Service. [60].

[The Exeter Ordinal:29 has a different devotion here: ‘Finito Completorio, vadant omnes ad gradum chori et stent circumquaque presbiterum, et dicatur psalmus De profundis pro episcopis et aliis defunctis cum Kyrieleison . . . ‘  Compare the Sarum devotion ‘Post missam, ante prandium, page 83.]

It seems likely that in later times this devotion was also omitted during other ruled octaves: Corpus Christi, the Visitation, and the Name of Jesus.

. . . sine nota . . .
i.e. recto tono.

V. Exurge Domine (Ps. 43:26.)

V. Domine Deus converte nos (Ps. 79:20.)

V. Domine exaudi orationem meam (Ps. 101:2)

Prayer. Ecclesie tue quesumus
Known as the collect against the persecutors of Holy Mother Church. The final clause does not appear in the Roman form; rather, it appears at the end of the collect for the second Sunday after the Epiphany.

Compline of Saint Mary.
This office also appears in the Psalter at [477].
This office (and also prime, terce, sext, and none of Saint Mary) would be said (i.e. sung recto tono) in convent, by the officiant of the Lady Mass and the other vicars who are required to take part, that is as a gathered community, rather than individually, in the Lady Chapel. See p. 73.

Ant. Beata es Maria

Chap. Sicut cynamomum

Hymn. Virgo singularis
A. J. Collins is incorrect in suggesting that this hymn was lost;  evidently he was unaware that it is an excerpt from the Hymn ‘Ave maris stella’. See ‘Middle-English Devotional Pieces’, The British Museum Quarterly, XVI-4 (Dec., 1940): 87-88. [Stable URL:, Accessed: 16-06-2016 18:14 UTC.]

V. Elegit eam Deus

The principle Sarum sources do not provide the full text of the response to this versicle.  The oldest source, AS:527 gives ‘Habitare.’  In 1531-P:63, the very late and presumably imported feast of the Presentation of the Virgin gives ‘Et habitare’, but at the Feast of St. Anne we find ‘Habitare.’  Within the general corpus of liturgical texts, variations appear in the response thus: ‘[Et] habitare eam facit/fecit in tabernaculo suo.’  Whilst ‘facit’ (present active indicative) appears most frequently, ‘fecit’ (perfect active indicative) matches the more traditional English translations (Palmer and Stranbrook, for example).  SB employs ‘facit’ in the Temporale volume (1882) but ‘fecit’ in the Sanctorale (1886), perhaps suggesting an intentional correction.  [The printed Sarum Hours of the Virgin typically employ ‘Et habitare eam facit . . .’, but they represent a different yet related tradition.  Thus the form of the response chosen for the edition is:  ‘Habitare eam fecit in tabernaculo suo.’

Ant. Ecce ancilla Domini (Luke 1:38.)

Prayer. Gratiam tuam quesumus
This collect is the postcommunion for the feast of the Annunciation. It is the collect for the Annunciation in the BCP. It also concludes the ‘Angelus’.

Hec oratio dicitur . . . per adventum tantum.’ In fact, this prayer is also used in Eastertide, until the Vigil of the Ascension. See p. [483].

Antiphon of St. Mary

The choice of antiphon is not specified.  It appears that Salve Regina was the most popular.  Others would likely be drawn from the selection at the entry to the Quire that appear on the first Sunday after the feast of the Holy Trinity, and those that appear at the end of the Processional.  In the later middle ages it was customary in some places to sing this antiphon in polyphony.

Compare the antiphon of St. Mary that follows None of the hours of St. Mary (p. 76).

At Matins of Advent.
According to the Psalter (page [2]), Credo would also be said before the opening versicles. Being that Pater noster, Ave Maria, and Credo are to be said privately, in practice the extent of this recitation would presumably depend upon the time available for each individual clerk, before the opening versicle was sung.
V. Domine labia mea. (Ps. 50:17)

V. Deus in adjutorium meum. (Ps. 69:2)

Invit. Ecce venit Rex

‘Officium principalis rectoris . . .’
Seeking the invitatory chant from the cantor may seem unneccessary, but perhaps, coming as it does at the beginning of the office, serves as a reminder of the hierarchy of responsibility for the musical performance of the office.

‘. . . nisi a passione Domini usque ad diem pasche . . . ‘
During that period the ‘Gloria Patri’ is omitted and the repetitions of the invitatory Antiphon commence with the latter part of the antiphon.

‘. . . in festis duplicibus . . . ‘
On double feasts the invitatory antiphon is first sung through by the rulers of the choir and is then repeated by the full choir, after which the psalm begins. On other days the invitatory antiphon is intoned by one or more leaders, and continued by the full choir, after which (with no repetition) the psalm begins.

‘Post primum tercium et quintum . . .’
In singing the invitatory the repetitions of the antiphon take two forms, Integrum (Whole) and Altera (Latter)–the second half of the antiphon only, commencing at †. The form of the whole invitatory is as follows:
(Antiphon repeated on double feasts)
Verse 1
Antiphon (whole)
Verse 2
Antiphon (latter)
Verse 3
Antiphon (whole) (re-establishing the pitch if necessary)
Verse 4
Antiphon (latter)
Verse 5
Antiphon (whole)
Verse 6
Antiphon (latter)
Antiphon (whole)

(The terms Integrum (whole) and Altera (latter) do not appear in this context in the Sarum sources; they are adopted from the Nocturnale Romanum (2002, ed. Holger Peter Sandhofe).

Hymn. Verbum supernum prodiens
Anon., c. 10th c.
Trans. (English Performing edition) J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, 1851, 11.
Trans. (English Scholarly edition) Ronald Knox, The Westminster Hymnal, 1939, 2.
Another translation, by Charles Bigg, is available in The English Hymnal, no. 2. (High Word of God, who once didst come).
Thomas Aquinas wrote a eucharistic hymn that begins the same way: ‘Verbum supernum prodiens / Nec Patris linquens dexteram’.

1 Ant. Non auferetur sceptrum (cf. Gen 49:10.)
The series of nine antiphons for Advent cycle through the 8 modes; antiphon 9 uses mode IV.  The first three antiphons are based on Genesis.

The Roman breviaries, both pre- and post-Tridentine, have a different set of antiphons: ‘Veniet ecce rex’ etc. which also exhibits a cycle of modes, and which likewise appears to be a relatively late addition to the repertoire.

The ‘Non auferetur sceptrum’ series is also found in the York, Hereford, and Rouen breviaries among others.

. . . nullum psalmum exaltando . . .
This indicates that even if the pitch has fallen during the psalm singing, there should be no interruption to restore the pitch.

2 Ant. Erit ipse expectacio (Gen. 49:10-11.)
The only non-Sarum source in CANTUS for this chant is Beneventan.

3 Ant. Pulchriores sunt oculi (Gen. 49:12.)

V. Ex Syon species decoris (Ps. 49:2.)  This text also appears as the V. of R. 3 on the vigil of the Nativity.

V. Jube domine benedicere.
AS:9. unambiguously sets ‘domine’ with three distinct notes. ‘domine’ refers to the priest being addressed. In cases where the office is recited alone, ‘Domine’ would be appropriate, since in this case it is the Lord God that is being addressed. See Catholic Encyclopedia: Gospel in the Liturgy.   In the edition ‘domine’ is translated ‘lord’ in order to distinguish the Sarum tradition from ‘domne’ of the Roman tradition (Breviarium Romanum (1568), 107), which is typically translated as ‘sir’. See also William Maskell, The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England. 44. (although note that Maskell here uses ‘domne’ without special warrant).

Lectio. Visio Esaie
This example does not show the full detail of the tone for the lessons, since it so happens that each sentence (except the last) ends on an accented syllable. Sentences ending on weak syllables will inflect to A. See 91*.

It may be that interrogative sentences should be sung as in the Use of York, B-(B)-C with B on the accent, preceded where possible by the inflection B A.  This formula that appears in the passion Gospels at Mass during Holy Week.  This formula also  appears at the conclusion of Lesson 2 in the Office of the Dead, where it appears to be a reminder to use the interrogative formula rather than the usual concluding formula, C (F) F.  (Alternatively, but less likely, the interrogative sentences in lessons at matins might be sung  B B B B  . . . C, as is normally done at the epistle and Gospel at Mass.)

V. Hec dicit Dominus (after Isaiah 45:22 or Zacharias 1:3.)

V. Tu autem Domine (based on Ps 40:11.)

1 Resp. Aspiciens a longe (V 1, Ps 48:3; V 2, Ps 79:2; V 3, Ps 79:3.)
This first matins responsory is also the most elaborately organized in the entire Antiphonale. Each of the first thee verses is sung by a different boy; the fourth verse is sung by all three boys together. Each repetenda is shorter than the previous one. The whole responsory (up to ‘In populo Israel’) is repeated again at the end.

. . . ex parte cantoris . . .
the cantor’s side. Normally the two sides into which the choir is divided are named ‘Choir’ and ‘Other’, the Choir side being the side that takes the lead. As the weeks proceed ‘Choir’ and ‘Other’ will alternate from side to side. From this text it appears that during the first week of Advent the ‘Choir’ side will be the south, the Dean’s side (decani), and that the ‘Other’ side will therefore be the north (cantoris). The main point is that the first boy will sing from the ‘lead’ side; the second boy from the other side, and the third boy from the same side as the first boy.

2 Resp. Aspiciebam in visu (Dan 7:13.)

3 Resp. Missus est Gabriel (based on Luke 1:26-33.)
Note the unusual tritone leaf (B-F) at the return of the repetenda.  Other, non-Sarum sources, such as A-KN 1011:2v, A-KN 1013:3v, CH-SGc 388:21, and F-Pnm lat. 15181:113v avoid the tritone by beginning the repetenda at ‘Ecce concipies’.

4 Ant. Bethlehem non est minima (Matthew 2:6; 1:21.)

5 Ant. Ecce virgo concipiet (Isaiah 7:14.)

6 Ant. Orietur in diebus (Ps. 71:7; 11.)
In CANTUS this text is usually set to mode III, and is used for the Nativity.

V. Egredietur virga (Isaiah 11:1.)

Sermon ‘Igitur quoniam post tempus’
Trans. WR.
Another English translation appears in Boniface Ramsey, The Sermons of Maximus of Turin (Paulist Press, 1989):46.
‘Sicut fulgur choruscans de sub celo . . .’, Luke 17:24
‘. . . ita erit adventus filii homini.’, Mat. 24:27.
‘In illa nocte erunt duo . . . et una relinquetur.’, after Luke 17:34 and Mat. 24:41.

4 Resp. Ave Maria gratia plena (Luke 1:28, 35.)
The high range of ‘supereniet in te’ is an excellent example of word-painting.

. . . Quando dicitur V. Gloria Patri . . .
This may occur when the Responsory is used after the third lesson on a feria (during the week).

5 Resp. Suscipe verbum
In the York Use this responsory appears on the third Sunday of Advent.
Responsories 6-8 appear as 5-7 in the York Use.
The English Performing version reflects the rhyme of the verse.
The English Scholarly version is a literal rendering.

Lesson 6
‘Universum stratum ejus fersasti in infirmitate ejus.’, Ps. 40:4.
‘Surge tolle grabatum tuum et ambula.’, Mark 2:9; John 5:8.

6 Resp. Salvatorem expectamus (cf. Titus 2:12.)

7 Ant. Nox precessit (Rom. 13:12.)
‘appropinquabit’ replaces the Vulgate ‘appropinquavit’.

8 Ant. Hora est jam (after Rom. 13:11.)

9 Ant. Gaudete in Domino (Phil. 4:4.)

V. Egredietur Dominus (after Isaiah 25:21.)
The response is said silently.
Note that this versicle is not the same as CANTUS 008043, which omits the final words ‘a peccatis eorum’. The inclusion of the final words, albeit sub silentio appears to be a Sarum peculiarity.

Homily. Betphage, domus bucce
Trans. WR

7 Resp. Audite verbum (after Jer. 31:10, 4:5.)

Lesson 8
‘Omnes enim peccaverunt : et egent gloria Dei.’, Rom. 3:23
‘Super quem nullus adhuc hominum sedit . . .’, Mark 11:2

8 Resp. Ecce virgo concepit (V. Is. 9:6-7.)
The York Use has ‘Obsecro Domine’ here.

Lesson 9
‘Quid solvitis pullum ?’, Luke 19:33
‘. . . ad simulacra muta prout ducebatur incedens.’, after I Cor. 12:2
‘Hoc in Zacharia scriptum est.’ cf. Zach. 9:9
‘Discite a me : quia mitis sum et humilis corde.’, Mat. 11:29

9 Resp. Letentur celi (Ps. 95:11; Is. 49:13; V. Ps. 71:7, 11.)

. . . Non dicatur Te Deum.
When Te Deum is sung, the ninth responsory ends after the repetenda following the V. Gloria Patri. When Te Deum is not sung, the main part of the responsory is repeated again from the beginning.

The ferial responsories appear on Wednesday because that is the first occasion on which they can occur during the week. They may, however, be deferred to a later weekday, or indeed be omitted entirely on account of an abundance of feasts and commemorations.

Finito ultimo responsorio . . . ‘ indicates that there is no repetition of the prayers Pater noster and Ave Maria before the commencement of Lauds, but that normally Lauds is a direct continuation of Matins.

V. Emitte agnum Domine (Is. 16:1.)
‘Syon’, as a transliteration of the Hebrew, is here accented on the final syllable. In the English versions it is accented on the first syllable.

At Lauds.
V. Deus in adjutorium (Ps. 69:2.)

1 Ant. In illa die (Joel 3:18.)

2 Ant. Jocundare filia Syon (after Zach. 9:9; see also Sophonias 3:14.)

3 Ant. Ecce Dominus veniet (after Zach. 14:5-6)
Psalms 62 and 66 are sung as one continuous psalm.

4 Ant. Omnes sitientes (Is. 55:1, 6.)

Gloria Patri is omitted at the Benedicite because the Benedicite includes its own unique doxology.

5 Ant. Ecce veniet propheta magna
Psalms 148-150 are sung as one continuous psalm.

Hymn. Vox clara ecce intonat
Anon (Ambrosian), 5th-6th c,. cento
Trans. G. H. Palmer, The Diurnal, 157.
(The familiar 1849 translation by Edward Caswall, ‘Hark! an awful voice is sounding’ [rev. Hark! a thrilling voice is sounding’], Lyra Catholica (1849):46, is in a different metre, 87.87.)

V. Vox clamantis in deserto (Mat. 3:3)
The response is said silently.

A Spiritussanctus in te descendet (after Luke 1:35)

Memorial of Saint Mary
Ant. Missus est Gabriel (after Luke 1:26)

An extensive analysis of this antiphon appears in Richard Porterfield, ‘Melodic Function and Modal Process in Gregorian Chant‘, Ph. D. diss., City University of New York, 2014:6-42.

V. Egredietur virga (Is. 11:1)

Prayer. Deus qui de beate Marie
This is the prayer for the Annunciation; it also used for the memorial of the blessed Virgin at mass during Advent.

. . . sine nota . . .
i. e. recto tono.

. . . statim post vesperas . . .
The meaning ought to be that vespers of Saint Mary is said directly after vespers of the day, and matins (and lauds) of Saint Mary is said directly after matins (and lauds) of the day.

In Advent at the Hours of Saint Mary

In BL-52359:2v. matins, lauds and the little hours of St. Mary appears directly after compline of St. Mary, such the that little office of St. Mary appears all together in one place.

Invit. Ave Maria (after Luke 1:28.)

Sunday and Monday
Ant. Benedicta tu in mulieribus (Luke 1:28)

V. Specie tua (Ps. 44:5)

Ant. Specie tua (Ps. 44:5)

V. Diffusa est gratia (Ps. 44:3)

Ant. Gaude Maria Virgo

V. Specie tua (Ps. 44:5)

V. Sancta Dei genitrix

At Lauds of the Virgin
Ant. Prophete predicaverunt

V. Elegit eam Deus

A. Spiritus Sanctus in te (after Luke 1:35, 30)

At Prime of the Blessed Virgin
Hymn. Memento salutis Auctor. Anon. The first stanza is the third stanza of the hymn ‘Christe Redemptor omnium’. The second stanza is the third stanza of the hymn ‘Mater Dei sanctissima’ (AH-12: #73).

Although stanza 2 often appears as ‘Maria mater gratie’, this form does not seem to appear in Sarum sources.
Stanza 1 trans. J. M. Neale.
Stanza 2 trans. Fr. Edward Caswall, Lyra Catholica, 1848, 247.

Chap. Egredietur virga de radice Jesse

Resp. Ave Maria (after Luke 1:28.)

At Terce.
Ant. Missus est Gabriel (after Luke 1:26.)

Chap. Non secundum visionem

Resp. Diffusa est gratia (Ps 44:3.)

At Sext.
Ant. Angelus Domini nunciavit (after Luke 1:26-35

Chap. Et percutiet terram

Resp. Specie tua (Ps 44:5.)

V. Adjuvabit eam (Ps 45:6.)  Old Roman

At None.
Ant. Ave Maria (after Luke 1:28.)

Chap. Locutus est Dominus ad Achaz

Resp. Adjuvabit eam (Ps 45:6.)

V. Elegit eam Deus

Antiphon of St. Mary

[Hec antiphona . . . ]
The devotion or suffrage to Mary indicated here in the 1519 Antiphonale is found in its complete form near the end of the Processionale. There appear to be no further rubrics regarding the performance of this devotion.  Compare the devotion that appears on p. 37.

Ant. Salve Regina
The form that appears in the Processionale is interspersed with a hymn, ‘Virgo mater ecclesie’. This also appears in the books of hours, but is absent from the breviaries.

Salve regína misericórdie. Vita dulcédo et spes nostra salve. Ad te clamámus éxules fílii Eve. Ad te suspirámus geméntes et flentes in hac lachryimárum valle. Eya ergo advocáta nostra : illos tuos misericórdes óculos ad nos convérte. Et Jesum benedíctum fructum ventris tui nobis post hoc exílium osténde.
V. Virgo mater ecclésie Etérna porta glórie : Esto nobis refugium, Apud Patrem et Fílium.
O clemens.
V. Virgo clemens virgo pia Virgo dulcis o María Exáudi preces ómnium, Ad te pie clamántium.
O pia.
V. Funde preces tuo nato Crucifíxo vulneráto : Et pro nobis flagelláto, Spinis puncto felle portáto.
O dulcis.
V. Gloriósa Dei mater, Cujus natus extat Pater Ora pro nobis ómnibus Qui tui memóriam ágimus.
O María.
V. Dele culpas miserórum, Terge sordes peccatórum Dona nobis beatórum Vitam tuis précibus.
O dulcis María.

[In non-Sarum sources another verse is sometimes to be found:
V. Ut nos salvat a peccátis, Pro amóre sue matris : Et ad regnum claritátis Non ducat Rex pietátis.]

V. Ave María grátia plena Dóminus tecum.
R. Benedícta tu in muliéribus et benedíctus fructus ventris tui.

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus qui gloriose virginis et matris Marie corpus et animam ut dignum Filii tui habitaculum effici mereretur Spiritu Sancto cooperante mirabiliter preparasti : da ut cujus commemoratione letemur ejus pia intercessione ab instantibus malis a subitanea morte et improvisa liberemur. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.
Almighty, everlasting God, who didst prepare the body and soul of the glorious virgin and mother Mary, by the cooperation of the Holy Ghost, to become a worthy dwelling for thy Son : grant that we who rejoice in her commemoration may by her loving intercession be delivered from present evils and from sudden and unexpected death. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

At Prime of Advent.
Hymn. Jam lucis orto sydere
The hymn possibly dates to the 8th century.  Ambrosian metere (iambic dimeter).  It is sung daily at prime throughout the year.
The melody for Sundays in Advent is that of ‘Verbum supernum prodiens’ of matins in Advent and ‘Vox clara ecce intonat’ of lauds in Advent.
The translation is by J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, 4.
See John Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1892):577.

Resp. Veni ad liberandum nos (V based on Ps 79:3; )

V. Timebunt gentes (Ps 101:16.)

Chap. Nox precessit

Resp. Ostende nobis Domine

V. Memento nostri Domine (Ps. 105:4.)

Chap. Sicut in die honeste ambulemus

Resp. Super te Hierusalem (after Is. 60:2.)

V. Domine Deus virtutum (Ps 79:4-5.)

After Mass, before the Meal.
This devotion is known familiarly as the ‘Litany of the Faithful Departed’.
Presumably on occasions where a procession follows none, and eventually return to conclude in the chancel, as on the rogation days, this devotion will be postponed until the procession is finished.

. . . sine nota . . .
i.e. ‘recto tono’.

V. Credo videre (Ps 26:13)

Prayer. Absolve quesumus Domine
A shorter, and presumably earlier form of this prayer appears in the ‘Commendatio animarum’ in the Sarum Manuals.

At Second Vespers.
1 Ant. Sede a dextris. (Ps 109:1.)

2 Ant. Fidelia omnia (Ps 110:7.)

3 Ant. In mandatis ejus (Ps 111:1.) Gallican

4 Ant. Sit nomen Domini (after Ps 112:2.)

5 Ant. Nos qui vivimus (Ps 113:26.)

Resp. Tu exurgens (after Ps 101:14.)

Ant. Ne timeas Maria (Luke 1:30.)

This antiphon and ‘Beata es Maria’ that follows share much in common.  The first is the declaration of the angel to Mary, the second is that of Elizabeth to Mary.  The melodies are very similar.  Both antiphons are used at the Magnificat at vespers in Advent, on the first and second Sundays, and both are used at the memorial of St. Mary in Advent.

Memorial of Saint Mary
Ant. Beata es Maria (after Luke 1:45.)

V. Egredietur virga (Is. 11:1.)

‘Etiam in commemoratione festi loci . . .’  It is not clear why the memorial at the commemoration of the Feast of the Place should use the ‘festal’ rather than the ‘ferial’ antiphon.

The antiphon Beata es Maria appears on the second Sunday in Advent.

The Exeter Ordinal I:40 indicates that vigils of the dead is to be said before vespers of the day.

Rubrics of the Office of the Dead.

V. Complaceat tibi Domine (Ps. 39:14.)

In quotidianis obsequiis . . . ‘  This indicates that the third Responsory should conclude at the end of the repetendam, omitting a final repetition of the main part of the Responsory.

Ant. Requiem eternam

Kyrie eleyson


Quando vero sigillatim exra conventum dicitur commendatio . . .’

When said alone, the V. and R. would both be said by that person.  However, the commendatio could potentially be said ‘bini et bini’–in twos, in which case the V. and R. would apply.

Prayer. Tibi Domine commendamus.
The translation is based upon that found in The Life, Letters, and Sermons of Bishop Herbert de Losinga, ed Edward Merick Goulburn and Henry Symonds. (Oxofrd and London: James Parker and Co,, 1878) Vol. 1:339.

V. Requiem eternam

Monday in the first week of Advent
Invit. Regem venturum Dominum

V. Ex Syon species (Ps 49:2.)
The ferial versicles are taken from the Sunday in rotation.

Resp. Aspiciebam
The responsories are taken from the Sunday in rotation, along with the ferial repsonsories (feria iv). If all weekdays were ferias the series of ferias i, ii, and iii would be repeated on ferias v, vi, and sabbato.

Ant. Miserere mei (Ps 50:1.)
This is the ferial antiphon from the Psalter.

Chap. Ecce dies veniunt

V. Vox clamantis (after Is. 40:3 and the four Gospels.)

Ant. Angelus Domini
This text is used as the opening versicle of the non-liturgical ‘Angelus’.

These are the ferial preces from the Psalter, 185.

Memorial of St. Mary
Ant. Spiritussanctus in te (Luke 1:35.)
This antiphon uses ‘descendet’ rather than the Vulgate ‘superveniet’.

Memorial of All Saints
Ant. Ecce Dominus veniet

Ant. Veni et libera nos

Ant. Tuam Domine excita potentiam

Chap. Qui venturus est
This chapter is based the same text as Advent 3, responsory 3. Only the first phrase is from Hebrews.

Ant. In tuo adventu

Chap. Prope est ut veniat
Only the first phrase is taken literally from Isaiah.

Sexta hora dicitur ante missam : nisi in dominicis diebus et festiviis.‘  Presumably Sext would come after mass on feasts with rulers of the choir, but before mass on feasts without rulers of the choir, and on ferias.

Ant. Veni Domine et noli tardare

This antiphon also appears at lauds of Friday in the third week of Advent, 215.

Chap. Venite ascendamus

Chap. In diebus illis salvabitur Juda

Ant. Hierusalem respice (after Bar. 4:36.)
This antiphon appears to be the basis of the longer Palm Sunday antiphon of the same name (see Noted Missal:488).

Memorial of blessed Mary
Ant. Ne timeas Maria (after Luke 1:30-31)

Tuesday in the first week of Advent
V. Egredietur virga (Is. 11:1)

Ant. Leva Hierusalem oculos


Ant. Querite Dominum (Is. 55:6.)

Wednesday in the first week of Advent

2 Resp. Obsecro Domine (Exod. 4:13; 3:7; Ps 103:3.)
This responsory and the next are in fact ferial responsories, but in this model first week of Advent have been placed where they are normally sung, as a guide for the remainder of the year.

3 Resp. Alieni non transibunt (Joel 3:17-18; Hosea 14:4.)


Ant. De Syon exhibit lex (Is. 2:3.)

Ant. Veniet fortior me (Luke 3:16.)
This antiphon has much in common with mode V. The ambiguity is apparent in the diversity with which flats are applied in the sources. Some continental sources in CANTUS–A-Gu 29:7v. (Benedictine, ca. 1400) and A-KN 1011:6v. (Augustinian, 14th c.) and A-KN 1013:6v.(Augustinian, 12th c.) avoid the problem by avoiding B and B-flat throughout. Others appear to use B-natural throughout. F-Pn lat. 15181:114r. (Notre Dame de Paris, ca. 1300) uses B-flat throughout.

Thursday in the first week of Advent

Ant. Benedicta tu in mulieribus (Luke 1:42.)


Ant. Expectabo Dominum (Is. 8:17.)

Friday in the first week of Advent

Ant. Ecce veniet Deus et homo

Ant. Ex Egypto vocavi (Hosea 11:1.)

Saturday in the first week of Advent

Ant. Syon noli timere

Memorial of St. Mary
Ant. Sub tuam protectionem

Prayer. Concede nos famulos tuos

Full service of blessed Mary

First Vespers


Invit. In honore beatissime Marie virginis

1 Ant. Benedicta tu in mulieribus (after Luke 1:28.)
Antiphons 1-3 form a group, sharing the same melodic profile; antiphons 4-6 form a second group; antiphons 7-9 a third group.

2 Ant. Sicut mirra electa (after Eccles. 24:20.)
This antiphon is unusual in that the structure of the text does not conform properly to the formulaic music.  The normal structural division of the music is at the end of ‘dedisti’.  Compare antiphon 1 above and antiphon 3 below.

3 Ant. Speciosa facta es (cf. Song of Songs 2:13, 7:6; Ps 138:11.)

4 Ant. Specie tua (Ps 46:5.)

5 Ant. Adjuvabit eam (Ps 46:5.)

6 Ant. Sicut letantium (Ps 86:7.)

7 Ant. Gaude Maria virgo
cf. Purification, Responsory 9.
Like antiphon 2, this antiphon text does not conform to the fomulaic melody.  The notmal structural division of the music is at the end of ‘hereses’.  Compare antiphons 8 and 9 below.

8 Ant. Dignare me laudare te

9 Ant. Rorate celi desuper (Is. 45:8.)

Lessons. Missus est angelus Gabriel
Trans. WR
‘Missus est angelus . . . et nomen virginis Maria.’, Luke 1:26
‘Dominus fortis et potens : Dominus potens in prelio.’, Ps. 23:8
‘dominus virtutum ipse est Rex glorie.’, Ps. 23:10
‘Et ingressus angelus ad eam . . . in mulieribus.’, Luke 1:28

‘Que cum audisset . . . esset ista salutatio.’, LUke 1:29

Lesson 2
‘Ecce concipiesn in utero . . . nomen ejus Jesum.’, Luke 1:31
‘Ipse enim [(inquiens)] salvum faciet populum suum, a peccatis eorum.’, Mat. 1:21.
‘Hic erit magnus . . . non erit finis.’, Luke 1:32

‘Quomodo fiet istud : quoniam virum non cognosco ?’, Luke 1:34

Lesson 3
‘Quomodo fiet istud : quoniam virum non cognosco ?’, Luke 1:34
‘Spiritussanctus superveniet in te . . . obumbrabit tibi.’, Luke 1:35
‘Ideoque quod nascetur . . . Filius Dei.’, Luke 1:35
‘Et ecce Elizabeth . . . in senectute sua.’, Luke 1:36

‘Ecce ancilla Domini . . . verbum tuum.’, Luke 1:38






Second Sunday of Advent
Major Privileged Sunday
First Vespers

Chap. In die illa erit germen

Note: the responsory Docebit nos will be sung with ‘Gloria Patri’ (which is not indicated in the Latin and Scholarly editions). Only in Passiontide and in the Office of the Dead is the ‘Gloria Patri’ omitted.

Ant. Orietur sicut sol (cf. Deut. 32:2)

Prayer. Excita domine corda nostra

Invit. Rex noster adveniet
This text is also used for responsory 9.

1 Resp. Hierusalem cito veniet. V. from Ps. 80:9-10 (Old Roman)

2 Resp. Ecce Dominus veniet. cf. Zach. 14:5-6
The York Use has ‘Alieni non transibunt’ here, and ‘Ecce Dominus veniet’ appears as the third responsory.

See also the memorial at first vespers in Advent 1.

3 Resp. Civitas Hierusalem.  V. Is. 40:10
In the York Use ‘Civitas Hierusalem’ is the fourth responsory.

Lessons of Maximus, ‘Superiore Dominica capitulum evangelicum’
Trans. WR.
Another English translation appears in Boniface Ramsey, The Sermons of Maximus of Turin (Paulist Press, 2002).
‘In illa nocte erunt duo in lecto uno . . .’Luke 17:34
‘Erunt duo molentes . . . una relinquetur.’, Luke 17:35

4 Resp. Ecce veniet Dominus. after Apoc. 14:14; V. Ps. 71:8
In the York Use ‘Ecce veniet Dominus’ is the fifth responsory.

Lesson 5
‘Non veni legem solvere : sed adimplere.’, after Mat. 5:17
‘Omnes declinaverunt . . usque ad unum.’, Ps. 13:3
‘Lex autem iram operatur . . . ‘, Rom. 4:15

5 Resp. Sicut mater consolatur.  V. Is. 46:13
In the York Use ‘Sicut mater consolatur’ is the sixth responsory.

Lesson 6

‘. . . rotam in medo rote esse connexam.’, Ezech. 10:10
‘Lac vobis potum dedi : non escam.’, I Cor. 3:2
‘Perfectorum autem est solida . . . exercitatos habent.’, Heb. 5:14
‘Sacrificium Deo spiritus contribulatus.’, Ps. 50:19
‘. . . sermo Dei currat et clarificetur in nobis.’, cf. II Thes. 3:1

6 Resp. Hierusalem plantabis vineam.  V. Zach. 9:9
In the York Use ‘Hierusalem plantabis vineam’ is the seventh responsory; the verse is ‘Deus a Libano’. (Matthew Cheung Salisbury, The Secular Liturgical Office in Late Medieval England (Turnhout: Brepols, 2015): 43, indicates the verse ‘Exulta satis’.)

Homily ‘Dominus ac Redemptor noster’

St. Gregory, Forty Gospel Homilies, 1. (PL 76:1077)
Trans. WR
Another English translation appears in Toal, The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers, Vol 1:17.

‘Exurget gens contra gentem . . . et fames.’, Luke 21:10
‘Erunt signa in sole . . . et fluctuum.’, Luke 21:25

7 Resp. Egredietur Dominus de Samaria.  V. after Is.16:5

8 Resp. Docebit nos Domnius Is. 2:3

Lesson 9
‘. . . et in bono opere sollicitudo confirmet.’, after II Thes. 2:17
‘Arescentibus hominibus . . . virtutes celorum movebuntur.’, Luke 21:26
‘Et tunc videbunt filium hominis . . . et majestate.’, cf. Luke 21:26

9 Resp. Rex noster adveniet.  V. after John 1:29
This text is also used for the invitatory.

Resp. feriale. Leva Hierusalem oculos.  V. Mich. 4:2

1 Ant. Ecce in nubibus

2 Ant. Urbs fortitudinis. after Is. 26:1

3 Ant. Ecce apparebit Dominus.  cf. Hab. 2:3

4 Ant. Montes et colles  Is. 55:12

5 Ant. Ecce Dominus noster

Chap. Quecunque enim scripta sunt

Ant. Super solium David  Is. 9:7



Chap. Deus autem patientie

Chap. Deus autem spei


V. Rorate celi desuper

Ant. Beata es Maria (after Luke 1:45.)

Memorial of St. Mary

The antiphon ‘Ne timeas Maria’ is substituted on this occasion so as to avoid duplication with the preceding antiphon ‘Beata es Maria’, which is the usual antiphon at the memorial of St. Mary in Advent.

Feria 2


The chapter ‘Ecce dies veniunt’ continues through all the ferias of Advent.

Ant. De celo veniet Dominator Dominus

Ant. Ecce Rex venit

Feria 3

Ant. Super te Hierusalem  Is. 60:2

Ant. Vox clamantis in deserto (Is. 40:3; cf. Mat. 3:3, Mark 1:3, Luke 3:4)

Feria 4

Ant. Ecce mitto angelum meum (after Mat. 11:10, Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27)

Syon renovaberis

Palmer, The Order of  Vespers:83 gives also an alternate psalm-tone ending, labelled ’11’, ending C.D.E.CD.C.  This psalm-tone ending does not appear in the Sarum Tonary.  It also appears in Palmer, The Sarum Psalter:v, where it is labelled as a York tone.

Feria 5

Ant. Tu es qui venturus es (cf. Mat. 11:3, Luke 7:19, 20)

Ant. Qui post me venit (cf. Mat. 3:11, Mark 1:7, Luke 3;16, John 1:27)

Feria 6

Ant. Dicite pusillanimes  cf. Is. 35:4

Ant. Cantate Domino canticum novum.  Is. 42:10

Ant. Levabit Dominus signum.  cf. is. 11:12

Third Sunday of Advent
Major Privileged Sunday
First Vespers
Chap. Non auferetur sceptrum

Ant. Ante me non est formatus Deus.  Is. 43:10, 45:23

Prayer. Aurem tuam quesumus Domine

Invit. Ecce venit jam plenitudo temporis.  after Gal. 4:4

In CANTUS this invitatory appears only in one source, I-Far:15r

1 Resp. Ecce apparebit Dominus.  cf. Deut. 33:2; Apoc. 14:4, 19:16; V. Hab. 2:3

See also Advent II, Lauds, Ant. 3

2 Resp. Bethleem civitas Dei summi.  after Mich. 5:2; V. Zach. 9:10
This responsory exhibits an unusually wide melodic range of a thirteenth, from D to B (or B-flat).

3 Resp. Qui venturus est veniet.  see Hab. 2:3; V. see Heb. 10:37

See also Advent II, Lauds, Ant. 3.

Sermon of blessed Augustine. Legimus sanctum Moysen
Trans. WR
A French translation appears in Ouevres completes de Saint Augustin XX (Paris, 1873), Sermon 245:435.
‘Audi Israel . . . Deus unus est.’, Mark 12:29
‘. . . non potest numerari . . .’, cf. III Reg. 3:8
‘Magnus Dominus . . . non est numerus.’, Ps. 146:5
‘Deus unus est Pater . . . sed unus est Deus.’, cf. Symbolum Anathasii:15-16.
‘Non.’  This sentence of only one syllable would be sung to the note B, as in other sentences that end with a monosyllabic word.

‘. . . Jesus plenus Spiritu Sanco regressus est ab Jordane.’, Luke 4:1

4 Resp. Egypte noli flere
The York Use has the responsory ‘Suscipe verbum’.
In the York Use ‘Egypte noli flere’ is the fifth responsory.

5 Resp. Prope est ut veniat.  Is. 14:1; V. see R. 3 above.
In the York Use ‘Prope est ut veniat’ is the sixth responsory.

Lesson 6
‘Tu es sacerdos . . . ordinem Melchisedech.’, Ps. 109:4
‘Virgam virtutis tue emittet Dominus ex Syon.’, Ps. 109:2
‘Exiet virga de radice Jesse . . . sapientie et intellectus.’, Is. 11:1-2
‘Quoniam ipse per sanguinem . . . que in terris.’, cf. Col. 1:20

6 Resp. Descendet Dominus sicut pluvia.  see Ps. 71:6, 7, 111
In the York Use ‘Descendet Dominus sicut pluvia’ is the seventh responsory.

Homily of blessed Gregory. ‘Querendum nobis est’
Trans. WR
Another translation appears in Toal, The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers, I:45.
‘Ecce agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi . . .’, John 1:29
‘Qui est de terra . . . super omnes est . . .’, John 3:31
‘Tu es qui venturus es : an alium expectamus ?’, Maat. 11:3

7 Resp. Veni Domine et noli tardare.  V.  Ps. 79:3
In the York Use ‘Veni Domine et noli tardare’ is the eighth responsory.

Lesson 8
‘Tu es qui venturus es : an alium expectamus ?’, Maat. 11:3

8 Resp. Erumpant montes.  cf. Ps. 71:3

Lesson 9
‘Cecus vidunt . . . scandalizatus in me.’, Mat. 11:5
‘Beatus qui non fuerit scandalizatus in me . . .’, Mat. 11:5

9 Resp. Ecce radix Jesse.  V. Is. 11:5
The York Use has ‘Montes Israel’, the ninth responsory of the fourth Sunday in Advent in the Sarum Use.

1 Ant. Veniet Dominus et non tardabit.  cf. Heb. 10:37; I. Cor. 4:5

2 Ant. Hierusalem gaude

3 Ant. Dabo in Syon salutem.  Is. 46:13

4 Ant. Montes et omnes colles.  cf. is. 40:4

5 Ant. Juste et pie vivamus.  Tit. 2:12

Chap. Sic nos existimet homo

Ant. Johannes autem cum audieest.  Mat. 11:2



Chap. Michi autem pro minimo est

Chap. Nolite ante tempus judicare

Ant. Ite dicite Johanni.  cf. Mat. 11:5; Luke 7:22

Feria 2

1 Ant. Ecce veniet Dominus

2 Ant. Dum venerit Filius hominis

3 Ant. Ecce jam veniet plenitudo temporis.  after Gal. 4:4

4 Ant. Haurietis aquas in gaudio.  Is. 12:3

5 Ant. Egredietur Dominus de loco sancto suo.  cf. Is. 26:21

Ant. Egredietur virga de radice Jesse.  cf. Is. 11:1; Ps. 71:19; Luke 3:6

Ant. Elevare, elevare.  after Is. 52:2

Feria 3

1 Ant. Ecce Dominus noster cum virtute

2 Ant. Emitte agnum Domine.  after Is. 16:1

3 Ant. Ut cognoscamus Domine.  after Ps. 66:3

4 Ant. Da mercedem Domine.  Eccl. 36:18

5 Ant. Lex per Moysen data est.  John 1:17

Ant. Tu Bethleem terra Juda.  after Mat. 2:6

Ant. Erumpant montes jocunditatem.  cf. Ps. 71:3; V. see Resp. 8 above

Feria 4 (Ember Day)
Invit. Prope est jam Dominus

‘. . . spirulam id est palmam de terra sancta . . .’

It would seem that the spirula was a braided palm branch, similar to the ‘palmureli’, which are artistically intertwined palm leaves.  Presumably in this case the braided palm was intended to suggest the staff with which the angel Gabriel is so frequently depicted.
In the absence of more detailed rubrics, it would seem most appropriate if the spirula were held by the lector only during the reading of the Gospel, prior to the beginning of the Homily of the Venerable Bede. In this way the spirula would be seen as identifying the lector with the Angel Gabriel.

[Other speculations follow:
The spirula may be a palmer’s staff.  ‘[Palm branches] could not be preserved during so long a journey as that from the Holy Land; [Palmers] appear to have been supplied with staves of palm, of which the make was not always uniform.’ See Thomas Dudley Fosbroke, British Monachism: Or, Manners and Customs of the Monks and Nuns of England 3rd. edition (London: M. A. Nattali, 1843.):316.  [DuCange Glossarium: PALMARIUS [Palmatus], Peregrinus. Palmarii porro dicebantur, qui peregrinationem Hierosolymitanam seu ex voto ac pietatis intuitu, vel cruce ac sacra expeditione suscepta, in patriam redierant, quod in signum exactae istius peregrinationis palmarum, quarum ferax est Syria, ramos prae manibus redeundo deferrent.; Petrus Damianus lib. 2. Epist. 15: Ex Hierosolymitana peregrinatione deveniens Palmam ferebat in manu. Sed palma juncta maxime utebantur.]
Although all the available Sarum breviaries agree on ‘spirulam’, ‘spiculam’ would perhaps make more sense.
It is possible that this symbol relates to the ancient connection of the ember days with agricultural themes: ‘in June for a bountiful harvest, September for a rich vintage, and in December for the seeding.; hence their feriae sementiva, feriae messis, and feri vindimiales. ‘ Mersham, Francis, ‘Ember Days’, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. V. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from New Advent:, the symbolism of the angel Gabriel seems much more likely.  It is clear that many elements of this office and the mass of this day allude to, or are borrowed from the Annunciation.]

Homily of the Venerable Bede. Exordium nostre redemptionis
Trans. WR
This homily also appears in Bede, Advent Homily 3, CCL 122:14-17.

1 Resp. Clama in fortitudine.  V. Is. 40:9

Lesson 2
‘Dominus [(inquit)] fortis et potens, Dominus potens in prelio.’, Ps. 23:8
‘Ad virginem despnsatam . . . et nomen virginis Maria.’, LUke 1:27
‘Memor esto igitur Jesum Christum . . . secundum evangelium meum.’, II Tim. 2:8

2 Resp. Orietur stella ex Jacob.  see Num. 24:17; V. 71:11 (see resp. 6 above)

Lesson 3

‘Ingressus autem angelus . . . benedicta tu in mulieribus.’, Luke 1:28

3 Resp. Egredietur Dominus.  Zach. 14:3; V. Is. 2:2
The York Use has the responsory ‘Modo veniet Dominus’, the second responsory of Ember Friday in the Sarum Use.

1 Ant. Rorate celi desuper

See Advent I, First Vespers, V.

2 Ant. Prophete predicverunt

See Vespers of the Virgin, Ant. 1

3 Ant. Spiritus Domine super me.  cf. Luke 4:18

4 Ant. Ecce veniet Dominus.  I Kings 2:8

5 Ant. Annunciate populis.  see I Para. 16:35

Ant. Missus est Gabriel

This antiphon also appears at the memorial of St. Mary, Advent I, at Lauds.

Prayer. Presta quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut redemptionis nostre

Memorial of St. Mary

Ant. Quomodo fiest istud.  see Luke 1:34

Feria 5

1 Ant. De Syon veniet Dominus

2 Ant. Convertere Domine aliquantulum.  cf. Heb. 10:37

3 Ant. De Syon veniet qui regnaturus est

4 Ant. Ecce Deus noster et honorabo eum.  see Exod. 15:3

5 Ant. Dominus legifer noster.  see Is. 33:22

Ant. Vigilate animo

Ant. Letamini cum Hierusalem.  Is. 66:10

Feria 6 (Ember Day)
Invit. Prope est jam Dominus

Homily of the Venerable Bede. Lectio quam audivimus sancti evangelii
Trans. WR
See also’ The Complete Works of Bede V:295, Homily XL, and in Lawrence Martin and David Hurst, Bede the Venerable: Homilies on the Gospels I (Cistercian Publications, 1991), 1.4.
‘. . . ubi neque nubent . . . angeli Dei in celo . . .’, Mat. 22:30

1 Resp. Precursor pro nobis
The York Use has the Responsory ‘Egredietur Dominus’, the third Responsory of Ember Wednesday in the Sarum Use.

Lesson 2
‘Ecce ancilla Domini : fiat michi secundum verbum tuum.’, Luke 1:38
‘Quanto magnus es humilia te in omnibus . . .’, Sir. 3:20

2 Resp. Modo veniet Dominus.  cf. Is. 7:14; V. Ps. 71:7
The York Use has ‘Precursor pro nobis’, the first responsory of this day in Sarum Use.

Lesson 3
‘Ut audivit autem . . . repleta est Spiritu Sancto Helizabeth.’, Luke 1:41

‘. . . Spiritu Sancto replebitur adhuc ex utero matris sue.’, Luke 1:15
‘Repleta est ergo . . . et exclamavit voce magna.’, Luke 1:41

3 Resp. Videbunt gentes justum tuum.  Is. 62:2

1 Ant. Constantes estote

This text appears also at the vigil of the Nativity, Resp. 2

2 Ant. Ad te Domine levavi animam meam. Ps. 142:8-9

3 Ant. Veni Domine et noli tardare

This Antiphon also appears at nones in the ferias of Advent, 107.

4 Ant. Deus a Libano veniet

5 Ant. Ego autem ad Dominum aspiciam. after Mich. 7:7

Ant. Ex quo facta est vox salutationis.  see Luke 1:44

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam



Homily of blessed Gregory. Redemptoris precursor quo tempore verbum
Trans. WR
See also PL-76:1160, and David Hurst, Forty Gospel Homilies: Gregory the Great (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1990), Homily 6, pp. 35-49.
‘Omne regnum seipsum divisum, desolabitur.’, Luke 11:17

1 Resp. Emitte agnum Domine

The responsory text appears also as the versicle before lauds daily throughout Advent, and as the text of ant. 1 at lauds on Tuesday of this week.  The verse text appears also as the versicle at vespers throughout Advent.

Lesson 2
‘Et venit in omnem regionem . . . in remissionem peccatorum.’, Luke 3:3
‘Predicans baptismum penitentie in remissionem peccatorum.’, Mark 1:4
‘Vox clamantis in deserto . . . facite semitias ejus.’, Mat. 3:3

2 Resp. Germinaverunt campi heremi/  V. Ps. 49:2

The verse text is also used for the versicle at the first nocturn of Advent I.

Lesson 3
‘Ego vox clamantis in deserto.’, Mat. 3:3
‘Parate viam Domini : rectas facite semitas ejus.’, Mat. 3:3
‘Omnis vallie implebitur . . . et collis humiliabitur.’, Is. 40:3

‘Omnis qui se exaltat . . . exaltabitur.’, Luke 14:11
‘Qui emitte fontes in convallibus.’, Ps. 103:10
‘Et convalles abundabunt frumento.’, Ps. 64:14 (Old Roman)

3 Resp. Radix Jesse qui exurget.  V. see Is. 52:15; 11:10
The York Use has the responsory ‘Paratus esto Israel’.

1 Ant. Veniet Dominus in potestate magna

This chant appears in only one early 11th. c. source in CANTUS, E-Tc 44.1.

2 Ant. Intuemini quantus sit gloriosus iste

3 Ant. Veniet iterum angelus tuus

4 Ant. Expectetur sicut pluvia

5 Ant. Paratus esto Israel

Ant. Omnis vallis implebitur.  Luke 3:5-6; see Is. 40:4

Prayer. Deus, qui conspicis quia ex nostra

Fourth Sunday of Advent
Major Privileged Sunday

Some of the variety exhibited amongst the uses on this day is due to its early history as a ‘dominica vacat’, and thus not being assigned proper chants at an early stage.

Chap. Ecce ego mittam in fundamentis

Prayer. Excita quesumus Domine potentiam tuam

Invit. Prestolantes Redemptorem.  cf. Luke 21:28
This chant appears in only five CANTUS sources.

1 Resp. Canite tuba in Syon

This responsory shares both the text and the melodic incipit with ant. 1 of lauds (below)

2 Resp. Octavadecima die.  V. Lev. 11:45

3 Resp. Non auferetur sceptrum (cf. Gen. 10, 12.)
This responsory uses the texts of the first three antiphons of Sunday matins in Advent.

Sermon of blessed Augustine. Vos inquam convenio o Judei
Trans. WR
See PL-42:1123. This sermon has apparently now been confidently assigned to Quodvultdeus, a younger contemporary and friend of Augustine (John Bloe, ‘Music Notation in the Archivo San Pietro C 105 and in the Farga Breviary, Chigi C. VI. 177’, Early Music History, Vol 18:1 ff.)

It may be convenient here to use the shorter lessons as found in BL-52359:24v-25r.  Lesson 4: ‘Vos inquam . . . Nobiscum Deus’; Lesson 5: ‘Accedat et alius . . . compuncta corda vestra’; Lesson 6: ‘Sed alii atque . . . de Christo quod nosti’.

‘Quousque animas nostras suspendis ?’, John 10:24
‘Tu de teipso . . . testimonium tuum non est verum.’, cf. John 5:31
‘Nonne scriptum est in lege vestra : . . . verum sit ?’, cf. John 8:17
‘. . . quod duorum hominum testimonium verum sit.’, cf. John 8:17
‘Ecce [(inquit)] virgo in utero concipiet . . . nomen ejus Emmanuel . . .’, Is. 7:14
‘. . . quod est interpretatum Nobiscum Deus.’, Mat. 1:23
‘Hic est [(inquit)] Deus noster . . . cm hominibus conversatus est.’, Bar. 3:38

‘Veni ascendamus in montem Domini.’, Is. 2:3; Mich. 4:2
‘Mons Dei mons uber . . . habitare in ipso ?., cf. Ps. 67:16; cf. Augustine, The Confessions, trans. J. G. Pilkington (Edinburghu: T. & T. Clark, 1876:210 n.
‘Alii Heliam . . . umnum ex prophetis.’, Mat. 16:13
‘Tu es Christus Filius Dei.’, Joh. 6:70

4 Resp. Me oportet minui.  see John 3:30; 1:27; V. John 1:19; 18:37

Lesson 5
‘Prophetam vobis suscitabit Deus de fratribus vestris.’, c. f. Acts 7:37
‘Omnis anima . . . populo suo.’, c. f. Acts 3:23
‘Non est [(inquit)] propheta . . . nisis in patria sua.’, Mark 6:4 (c. f. Mat. 13:57)
‘Adorabunt [(inquit)] eum omnes . . . omnes gentes servient illi.;’, Ps. 71:11
‘Dixit Dominus Domino meo . . . scabellum pedum tuorum.’, Ps.109:1
‘Quare [(inquit)] tumultuate . . . . adversus Christum ejus.’, after Ps. 2:1
‘Domine [(inquit)] audivi auditum tuum . . . et expavi.’, c. f. Hab. 3:2
‘Verbum caro factum est : et habitavit in nobis.’, John 1:14
‘Post hec in terris . . . conversatus est.’, Bar. 3:38

5 Resp. Ecce jam veniet
The York Use has ‘Virgo Israel revertere’, the sixth responsory in the Sarum series.

Lesson 6 Sufficiunt vobis
‘Tu de teipso testimonium . . . tuum non est verum ?’, John 8:13
‘Nunc dimittis Domine servum tuum . . . salutare tuum.’, Luke 2:29
‘Tu puer propheta Altissimi . . . parare vias ejus.’, Luke 1:76
‘Unde michi hoc . . . infans in utero meo.’, Luke 1:43
‘Quem me suspicamini . . . calciamenti ejus.’, c. f. Acts 13:25

‘. . . ad corrigiam calciamenti ejus solvendam dignum . . .’, c. f. Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; John 1:27
‘Ecce [(inquit)] Agnus Dei ecce qui tollit peccata muindi.’, John 1:29
‘Tu venis ad me baptizari : et ego a te debeo baptizari.’, c. f. Mat. 3:14
‘Qui havet sponsam . . . propter vocem sponsi.’, John 3:29
‘Non sum missis nisi ad oves que perierunt domus Israel.’, Mat. 15:24
‘Vobis primum oportuerat . . . convertimur nos ad gentes.’, Acts 13:46
‘Jam nova progenies celo demittitur alto . . .’, Virgil Ecologues IV, 7
‘Nonne tres viros . . . similis est Filio Dei.’, Dan. 3:91-92

‘In lege [(inquit)] vestra scriptum . . . verum sit . . .’, John 8:17

‘. . . JESUS . CHRISTUS . YOS . THAU . SOTHER . . .’: There are difficulties in making the Greek letters work properly here.  ‘Jesus’ is spelled without the omicron, “Ιησυς” instead of “Ιησυος”, and even that requires skipping the line beginning “Celsum”.  The next word features an unusual spelling, “Χρειστος” instead of “Χριστος”.  Then the next word omits another omicron, “Θευ”, “theu”, instead of “Θεου”, with Latin V standing in for Greek upsilon.  Then we must skip 2 lines (Dejiciet and Non erit).  Then the next word is misspelled, “Ιος” instead of “Υιος”.  Then we skip the line Et tubarum, and then the final sigma of “Ios” must do double duty as the first letter of “Σωτηρ”, “Soter”. The Latinized acrostic actually reads, “Jesus Creistos Teu Ios [S]oter”, with spellings and word order different from the acrostic.  (John Hackney, June, 2022.)

6 Resp. Virgo Israel revertere
The York Use has ‘Juravi dicit Dominus’, the seventh responsory in the Sarum series.

Homily of blessed Gregory. Ex hujus nobis lectionis verbis
Trans. WR
This homily appears in the Latin Secular Breviary of 1911, and translations appear in the Anglican Breviary, Monastic Matins, The Stanbrook Breviary, and The Roman Breviary (Marquess of Bute). In the Breviarium Romanum 1529 and 1568 it appears on the third Sunday of Advent.
‘Nam confessus est . . . non sum ego Christus.’, John 1:20

7 Resp. Juravi dicit Dominus
The York Use has the responsory ‘Non discedimus’.

Lesson 8
‘Helias jam venit . . . quecumque voluerunt.’, Mat. 17:12

‘Et si vultis scire . . . ipse est Helias.’, after Mat. 11:14

8 Resp. Intuemini quantus sit iste

Lesson 9
‘Non sum Helias.’, after John 1:21
‘Ipse precedet ante illum in spiritu et virtute Helie.’, Luke 1:17

9 Resp. Montes Israel.  V. (Is. 45:8.)

The verse-text is also used as the versicle at vespers throughout Advent, and as ant. 1 at lauds of Wednesday in the third week of Advent.
The York use has the responsory ‘Nascetur nobis’.

1 Ant. Canite tuba in Syon

This antiphon shares both the text and the melodic incipit with resp. 1 (above).

2 Ant. Ecce veniet desideratus.  cf. Hag. 2:8

3 Ant. Erunt prava in directa.  cf Is. 40:4; Luke 3:5

4 Ant. Dominus veniet occurite

5 Ant. Omnipotens sermo tuus Domine

Chap. Gaudete in Domino semper

Ant. Ego vox clamantis in deserto.  John 1:23

This antiphon appears to be an atypical choice for this spot, which in most uses has ‘Ave Maria’.  It appears in only 8 sources in CANTUS, and never at this Sarum location.  the variety of traditions found here reflects the fact that in earlier times this was a ‘dominica vacat’. This choice matches the Gospel reading for this day–which is different from that in the Roman Use (Luke 3:1-6).



Chap. Nichil solliciti sitis

chap. Pax Dei que exuperat


Feria 2

Ant. Dicit Dominus penitentiam agite (after Mat. 3:2)


Feria 3

Ant. Consurge consurge.  Is. 51:9


Feria 4

Ant. Ponent Domino gloriam.  Is. 42:12; cf. Hab. 2:3; Heb. 10:37


Feria 5

Ant. Consolamini consolamini.  Is. 40:1


Feria 6

Ant. Dies Domini sicut fur.  I Thess. 5:2; Luke 12:40


Resp. Festina ne tardaveris

The text of the verse appears also in the antiphon at none on ferias in Advent.

O Antiphons
The Roman usage has only seven advent ‘O antiphons’, omitting ‘O Virgo virginum’ and beginning one day later. It is a common misconception that ‘O Virgo virginum’ is a peculiarly English supplement to the standard list of seven antiphons. That ‘O Virgo virginum’ was in fact widespread throughout Europe is indicated by its appearance in 56 CANTUS sources, only one being English, as opposed to 80 sources for the others. Four other ‘O antiphon’ texts appear with some frequency in CANTUS; Saint-Gall 388 itself contains 12 ‘O antiphons’.
Nevertheless, ‘O Virgo virginum’ addressed to Mary, rather than Jesus, and omitting a clause beginning ‘veni et . . . ‘ appears to be a later addition to the core of seven.
The fact that the initial letters read backwards spell ‘vero cras’ (truly tomorrow) or ‘ero cras’ (tomorrow I will be [there]) may be no more than a coincidence.

The antiphon ‘O Rex gloriose’ for the feast of the Ascension matches the melody and text-style of the Advent O antiphons.

December 16
Ant. O Sapientia

December 17
Ant. O Adonay

December 18
Ant. O Radix Jesse

December 19
Ant. O Clavis David

December 20
Ant. O Oriens

December 21
Ant. O Rex gentium

December 22
Ant. O Emmanuel

December 23
Ant. O Virgo virginum

On the Feast of St. Thomas, Apostle
Ant. O Thoma Didime

It is noteworthy that this antiphon for St. Thomas is linked to the Advent season not only by its use of the melody of the O antiphons, but also by the text reference to the ‘advent of the Judge’.

Memorial of Advent on the Day of St. Thomas
{At Lauds}
Ant. Nolite timere quinta enim die veniet

The image is of the Nativity.

Vigil of the Nativity
The title appears before matins of December 24, and is repeated before vespers on the same day. From matins through none there are variable portions depending upon the day of the week; but from vespers onward the content is invariable.

The Vigil of the Nativity is notable for its re-use of texts, as follows:
‘Hodie scietis’: Invit.; V. at matins resp. 1; ant. 2 at Lauds; versicle at lauds and sext; resp. at none. This text, with the addition of ‘et salvabit vos’ is used for the officium and the gradual at mass.
‘Constantes estote’: resp. 2 at matins; versicle at matins and none; resp. at terce.
‘Judea et Hierusalem’: resp. 2 at matins; ant. 1 at lauds
‘Crastina die delebitur’: versicle ‘ante laudes’; ant. 3 at lauds; versicle at terce. This text is also used for the Alleluya verse at mass.
‘Propter Syon’: ant. 4 at lauds; chapter at lauds.
‘Crastina erit’: ant. 5 at lauds; resp. at sext.

The above items include all the psalm-antiphons of lauds, except ‘Expectetur’, which is proper to the Saturday canticle, all the versicles, and all the responsories at the little hours.

Invit. Hodie scietis.

V. Constantes estote.  cf. 2 Par. 20:17

Omelia Origensis. Qui fuit necessitas. Pseudo-Origen.
Trans. WR.
‘Daniel intra lacum leonum . . . ‘, see Bel and the Dragon

1 R. Sanctificamini hodie.  cf. Ex. 16:7

2 R. Constantes estote
The first part of the responsory uses the text of the above versicle.  The next part, ‘Judea . . . vobiscum’ appears as the first antiphon of lauds.

‘Inventa est in utero habens.’ Mat. 1:18.
‘Joseph autem vir . . . traducere.’ Mat. 1:19.

3 R. De illa occulta.  V.  Ps. 49: 2-3

V. Crastina die delebitur

1 A. Judea et Hierusalem.

2 A. Hodie scietis

3 A. Crastina die delebitur

4 A. Propter Syon non tacebo.  Is. 62: 1

4 A.  Expectetur sicut ros.  after Deut. 32:2
This antiphon is based on the second verse of the Saturday canticle.  It therefore is a more suitable choice for Saturday.

5 A. Crastina erit vobis.  cf. I Kings 11:9

Chap. Propter Syon non tacebo

V. Hodie scietis quia veniet Dominus

A. Cum esset desponsata.  cf. Mat. 1:18, 20

Prayer. Deus qui nos redemptionis nostre

‘Hoc etiam generaliter fit . . . ‘
This rubric indicates that when a responsory with Alleluya is sung at terce, sext, and none, then the responsory at prime (Jesu Christe) will also be sung with Alleluya.


R. Constantes estote.  cf. II Par. 20: 17

V. Crastina die erit vobis.  cf. I Reg. 11: 9


Chap. Videbunt gentes justum tuum

R. Crastina erit vobis salus

V. Hodie scietis


R. Hodie scietis

V. Constantes estote.  cf. II Par. 20: 17

The Vigil of the Nativity: First Vespers (of the Nativity)

This vespers is structurally first vespers of the day (as indicated in Risby: 12r), and no longer the vigil.  However the use of the term ‘vigil’ here reflects the fact that the texts are still in anticipation of the Nativity.  This is most clearly shown in withholding the Christmas hymn-doxology ‘Gloria tibi Domine, Qui natus . . .’ until matins, as reinforced in the rubric that follows the hymn.  It will be noted also that the prayer is that of the vigil.

F. E. Gilliat Smith, ‘Two Mediaeval Christmas Offices’, The Dublin Review 116 (1895): 46-62, compares the Sarum Office with that of St. Donat’s, Bruges, as found in Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesie sancti Donatiani Brugen (ca 1520).

1 A. Rex pacificus

2 A. Magnificatus est Rex pacificus.  cf III Reg. 10: 23

3 A. Scitote quia prope est regnum Dei.  cf. Mat 24: 33; Hab. 2: 3

4 A. Levate capite vestra.  Luke 21: 28

5 A. Completi sunt dies Marie.  cf. Luke 2:3-4

Chap. Populus gentium qui ambulabat

R. Judea et Hierusalem

H. Veni Redemptor gentium
Text St. Ambrose of Milan (340-397).
Trans. (Performing edition) J. M. Neale and others, The English Hymnal, #14.
(Neale’s original appears in The Hymnal Noted, #12.)
Trans. (Scholarly Edition) J. D. Chambers,  The Psalter, or Seven Ordinary Hours of Prayer : 339

According to F. E. Gilliat Smith, ‘Two Mediaeval Christmas Offices’, The Dublin Review 116 (1895): 51, “During the singing of the hymn, two thurifers entered the chancel, each bearing in his hands a silken cope, which he presented to the officiating clergyman, who, retaining one for himself, handed the other to the priest who was to incense the high altar. When this had been done both priests proceeded to incense the other altars, each with his own thurible. The celebrant, leaving the choir by the northern gates, and preceded by one cerofer and a sacrist bearing his wand of office, incensed the altars of St. Martin, St. Catherine, the Holy Apostles and the Blessed Trinity, while his assistant similarly attended, passing through the southern gates, incensed the altars of St. Nicholas, St. Mary Magdalene, and St. Stephen.”
(The altars censed by the celebrant extend from the north quire transept to the Lady Chapel; those censed by the assistant are the corresponding ones to the south.)

V. Tanquam sponsus. Ps. 18: 6

A. Dum ortus fuerit.  after Ps. 18: 6

The office of compline appears also in the Psalter [376].

The day of the Nativity
Principal Double Feast

Several texts are used repeatedly on this day:
‘Tanquam sponsus’ is found in the versicle at first vespers and matins nocturn 1, ant. 2 and resp. 3 at matins
‘Dominus dixit’ is found at ant. 1 at matins and in the officium and Alleluya at the first mass.
‘Verbum caro’ is found at the versicle at matins nocturn 3, in the versicle ‘ante laudes’, in resp. 9, in the resp. at terce, and in the antiphon on Nunc Dimittis at compline.
‘Quem vidistis’ is found at resp. 4. of matins and ant. 1 of lauds
‘Notum fecit’ is found at ant. 9 of matins, and in the versicle at sext, and in the resp. at none.
‘Ipse invocavit me’ is found at the versicle of nocturn 2, at ant. 7 at matins and the versicle of terce and the resp. at sext
‘Letentur celi’ is found at ant. 8 at matins and at the offertory at the first mass.
‘Benedictus qui venit’ is found at the antiphon on the Benedictus at lauds, and at the versicle at lauds and none, and at the gradual at the second mass.
‘Tecum principium’ is found at ant. 1 of second vespers and at the gradual at the first mass.

Invit. Christus natus est.  cf. Is. 9: 6

H. Christe Redemptor omnium
Anon., 6th c.
Trans. (Performing edition) J. M. Neale, The English Hymnal, #17.
Trans. (Scholarly Edition) J. D. Chambers, Laude Syon: 69.

The verse ‘Gloria tibi Domine, Qui natus es de Virgine’ is also used at the Feast of the Holy Name (August 7).

The antiphons of matins are taken from their associated psalms.

1 Ant. Dominus dixit ad me.  Ps. 2: 7
This antiphon is repeated at matins of the Circumcision.

2 Ant. Tanquam sponsus.  Ps. 18: 6

3 Ant. Diffusa est gratia.  Ps. 44: 3

V. Tanquam sponsus.  Ps. 18: 6

Non dicitur Qui hodierna die . . . ‘
This rubric is a reminder that the Sarum Use does not include those words in the conclusion of the lesson. In comparison, the York Use concludes this lesson only with ‘Hec dicit Dominus Deus, qui hodierna die de Virgine nasci dignatus est : convertimini ad me et salvi eritis.’ (Thus saith the Lord God, who this day deigned to be born of a Virgin, Turn unto me : and ye shall be saved.’) This is an example of a trope.

Sarum differs from the Roman Rite in its responsories for this day:

1Hodie nobis celorumHodie nobis celorum
2Hodie nobis de celoHodie nobis de celo
3Descendit de celisQuem vidistis
4Quem vidistisO magnum mysterium
5O magnum mysteriumBeata Dei Genitrix
6Te laudant angeliSancta et immaculata
7Beata Dei GenitrixBeata viscera Marie
8Beata viscera MarieVerbum caro factum
9Verbum caro factum

1 R. Hodie nobis celorum Rex.  cf. Luke 2: 14

F. E. Gilliat Smith, ‘Two Mediaeval Christmas Offices’, The Dublin Review 116 (1895): 54. suggests that the elevated location of the boys is ‘possibly the triforium, or perhaps a platform erected for the purpose–behind the high altar.’ I believe the location to be the triforium, which at Salisbury Cathedral has five arched openings at the east end–or, if a high reredos was erected in the later medieval period, then at the level of the clerestory. Wells Cathedral andExeter Cathedral each provide an excellent location in the passage-way at the base of the great east window above the high altar. No comparable location exists in Lincoln Cathedral or Lichfield Cathedral at the present day.

Thomas Tallis composed a four-voice setting of this responsory in which the incipit and the verse are in polyphony; the remainder is in chant.

2 R. Hodie nobis de celo

‘. . . illuxit dies redemptionis . . . felicitatis eterne’, see Lesson 5 below.

3 R. Descendit de celis.  Ps. 18: 6
The first melody of the verse ‘Tanquam sponsus’ bears a striking resemblance to the melody of the proses for Saints Stephen and John.  Perhaps in some way this melody served as a basis for the prose melodies.

4 A. Suscepimus Deus. Ps. 47: 10

5 A. Orietur in diebus.  Ps. 71: 1

6 A. Veritas de terra orta est.  Ps. 84: 12
This antiphon appears in British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C 1 117v with adiastematic notation which appears similar to the diastematic version.

V. Ipse invocavit me.  Ps. 88: 27

Sermon of St. Isidore. Natalis Domini
Trans. WR.   Another translation appears in Thomas Louis Knoebel, Isidore of Seville : De ecclesiasticis officiis  (New York: Newman Press, 2008):49.

‘Verbum caro factum est’.  John 1: 14

4 R. Quem vidistis pastores


Sermon of St. Leo. Exultemus in Domino
Trans. WR.  Another translation appears in New Advent: Sermons of St. Leo the Great: Sermon 22.
‘ . . . illuxit nobis . . . felicitatis eterne’ see resp. 2 above.

Beginning at the ‘Tome to Flavian’ ( ‘Nam quia gloriabitur’; For since the Devil), the translation is based on that found at ‘’.

5 R. O magnum mysterium

‘in medio duum animalium’ cf. Hab. 3: 2 (Septuagint version): ‘In the midst of two animals’.

Lesson. Ingreditur ergo hujus mundi
Trans. WR.

6 R. Te laudant angeli

7 A. Ipse invocavit me.  Ps. 88: 27

8A. Letentur celi.  Ps. 95:11; I Para. 16: 31

9 A. Notum fecit Dominus.  Ps. 97: 2

V. Verbum caro.  John 1: 14

‘Hec sunt festa per annum . . . ‘.  I would suggest that the list ought to include all the principal double and major double feasts, thus including the later feasts, the Visitation (July 2), and the Name of Jesus (August 7).

As John Hackney points out (Ordinale Sarisburiense-Harley 1001:68, n. 154), the three homilies of this nocturn relate to the Gospel lections at the three masses of this day.  (Hence Gregory’s mention of not being ‘able to speak at length concerning the Gospel lesson’.)

Omelia beati Gregorii. Quia largiente Domino
Trans. WR.  Another translation appears in David Hurst, ed. Gregory the Great: Forty Gospel Homilies (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1990):50.
‘Deleantur de libro . . . non scribantur’, Ps. 68: 29.
‘ Ego sum panis . . . celo descendi’, John 6: 51.
‘In propria venit’, John 1: 11.
‘Omnis caro fenum’, Is. 40: 6.
‘Nisi granum frumenti . . . ipsum solum manet’, John 12: 24.

7 R. Beata Dei genitrix.  cf. Luke 1: 45

Omelia venerabilis Bede. Nato in Bethleem
Trans. WR.  Another translation appears in Lawrence Martin and David Hurst, Bede the Venerable: Homilies on the Gospels I (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1991): #7.

‘pastoribus qui in regione . . . super gregem suum’, cf. Luke 2: 8.

‘exortum est in tenebris . . . miserator Dominus’, cf. Ps. 111: 4.
‘Ego sum pastor bonus . . . ovibus suis’, John 10: 11.
‘Si diligis (inquit) me pasce oves meas’, cf. John 21: 17.
‘Confirma fratres tuos’, Luke 22: 32.

8 R. Beata viscera.  cf. Luke 11: 27

Omelia venerablisis Bede. Quia temporalem mediatoris
Trans. WR.  Another translation appears in Lawrence Martin and David Hurst, Bede the Venerable: Homilies on the Gospels I (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1991): #8.

‘In principio erat verbum’, John 1: 1.
‘Et verbum erat apud Deum’, John 1: 1.
‘Et Deys erat verbum’, John 1: 1.
‘Hoc erat in principio apud Deum’, John 1: 2.
‘Omnium per ipsum . . . est nichil’, John 1: 3.

9 Resp. Verbum caro factum est.  John 1: 14

In the York Use, the ninth responsory is ‘Descendit de celis’. This is followed by the prose ‘Facture dominans’, which is then followed by the ‘Liber generationis’.

A six-part setting was composed by John Sheppard (c. 1515-1558).

Liber generationis
The music cycles through six melodic phrases with certain irregularities: at ‘David autem’ the music interpolates phrase 4 between phrase 1 and phrase 2, articulating the conclusion of the first third of the list with this most elaborate phrase; at ‘Et post tranmigrationem’ the music again interpolates phrase 4–after phrase 2–articulating this next division at two thirds of the list; although the music picks up again at phrase 3, it then moves on to phrase 5 and so on, such that phrases 3 and 4 are exchanged;  the music then continues in a regular pattern.

The Tridentine Breviary indicates, after Te Deum, a conclusion of this matins with the prayer from vespers, and V. Benedicamus Domino.

The first mass of Christmas (Dominus dixit) occurs, according to the title, ‘In gallicantu’, at cockcrow, which would typically be sometime between midnight and dawn. lauds follows after the mass.

V. Verbum caro.  John 1: 14

1 Ant. Quem vidistis

2 Ant. Genuit puerpera Regem
text after Sedulius, Carm. Pasch. II. 63-68.  c.f. Marie de nivibus (August 5), Lesson 9.

3 Ant. Angelus ad pastores

4 Ant. Facta est cum angelo

5 Ant. Parvulus filius hodie

Chap.  Apparuit gratia Dei

H. A solis ortus cardine
Text, Sedulius.
Trans. (Performing version) J. M. Neale, Collected Hymns: 109.
Trans. (Scholarly version) J. D. Chambers, Lauda Syon: 72.
Another translation, by R. A. Knox, appears in The Westminster Hymnal, #8.

V. Benedictus qui venit (Ps. 117: 26-27.)
The V. in the Roman Use is ‘Notum fecit Dominus’.
F. E. Gilliat Smith, ‘Two Mediaeval Christmas Offices’, The Dublin Review 116 (1895): 59, suggests that the Sarum versicle contains “words full of meaning, and singularly appropriate on any day of the year, when we take into consideration the hour at which lauds was sung–sunrise, the peculiar construction of English churches, with their vast east windows, and the almost reverential awe with which the primitive and medieaval Christianity regarded the sun, which for them was a figure and type of Christ, doubly so, on the morning of Christmas, when they betoken, in a special manner, the first dawning of the Sun of Righteousness.” It must be noted, however, that, unlike many of the English cathedrals, Salisbury has no especially large east window.  Indeed, large eastern windows are more typically a feature of the later phases of Gothic architecture, i.e. the 14th century.

A. Gloria in excelsis.  Luke 2: 9
The Vulgate has ‘Gloria in altissimis Deo’.

Prayer.  Concede quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut nos unigeniti tui

Benediction. Verbum Patris hodie
This benediction is in metre and rhyme, 7ppx8.
Trans. WR. (maintaining the metre, but not the rhyme).
F. E. Gilliat Smith, ‘Two Mediaeval Christmas Offices’, The Dublin Review 116 (1895): 59, explains: ‘an interpolation utterly unknown in the breviary of to-day–a species of sequence or prose, which the rubric calls a Benedicamus, probably because the rhyming verses of which it is composed were originally written on the Neuma of the day[‘]s Benedicamus, much in the same way as Mass sequences were written on the Alleluiatic Neuma. It consists of two quaint strophes of eight verses each, the first of which was sung by two canons vested in surplices. We venture thus to render the words of their song:-

God’s Word made flesh on this glad day,
From the pure Shrine, wherein He lay,
Goes forth, man’s debt of sin to pay;
To lead him back to Heaven’s way
Whom Satan’s guile had made to stray.
Angels singing, passing sweet,
Heav’nly canticles most meet,
Fitly thus God’s advent greet.

Then two other canons, from the opposite side of the choir, likewise clad in white surplices, lifting up their voices made response:-

Lo! a messenger of light
Bathed in glory, shining bright,
Meets the shepherds’ startled sight,
Tells of peace mid sin’s dark night.
Christ, great Shepherd, peace bestow
On thy children here below,
Wakening them from sin and woe
By angels sweetly singing,
Thine advent meetly hymning,
Their homage duly bringing.’


Memorial of St. Mary
A. Ecce completa sunt

Prayer. Deus qui salutis eterne beate Marie

Benedicamus Domino

After lauds follows the second mass of Christmas, Lux fulgebit, the mass ‘In aurora’, at dawn or daybreak.


R. Verbum caro.  John 1: 14

V. Ipse invocavit me.  after Ps. 88:27

The third mass of the day, Puer natus, preceded by a procession, takes place after terce.  See John Hackney, Ordinale Sarisburiense-Harley 1001:70, note 162.

R. Ipse invocavit me.  Ps. 88:27

V. Notum fecit Dominus.  Ps. 97: 2

R Notum fecit Dominus.  Ps. 97: 2

V. Benedictus qui venit.  Ps. 117: 26-27

Second Vespers
The antiphons are taken from their associated psalms.

1 A. Tecum principium.  Ps. 109: 3

2 A. Redemptionem misit Dominus.  Ps. 110: 9

3 A. Exortum est in tenebris.  Ps. 111: 4, Old Roman

4 A. Apud Dominum misericordia.  Ps. 129: 7

5 A. De fructu ventris tui.  Ps. 131:11

‘. . . et in ipsis octavis.’ that is, within the octaves of the Nativity and the Epiphany.

A. Hodie Christus natus est (cf. Luke 2: 11, 13-14; Ps. 32: 1.)
In LU:413 The first word, ‘Hodie’ is set F.GA.A, matching the subsequent third repetition of that word.
The York Use has here the ant. Hodie intacta virgo Deum (3104).

Procession to the Altar of St. Stephen
In Salisbury Cathedral the altar of St. Stephen is at the east end of the south aisle. Presumably the procession would go out through the west quire door, turn right and continue east along the north aisle, turn south at the east end and arrive at the altar.  The return would continue the clockwise movement back to the great transept, and thence into the quire through the west quire door.

Resp. Sancte Dei preciose
This responsory is in regular metre and rhyme, 8p7pp. It uses the text of the first two stanzas of the hymn, ‘Sancte Dei preciose’ (see page 365).
Trans. J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, #15.
While is was widespread in the later middle ages, it was removed from the Roman books at the Tridentine reform.

Prose. Te mundi climata
In CANTUS this chant appears only in the Sarum source GB-AB 20541.

Non dicetur Gloria Patri ad hanc processionem . . .’ The ‘Gloria Patri’ will be sung when this responsory is sung at matins.

Prayer.  Da nobis quesumus Domine imitare

V.Speciosus forma.  Ps. 44: 3

A. Tu principatum tenes

This first of the memorial antiphons for St. Stephen will also appear as the final memorial antiphon on the eve of the Octave of St. Stephen.  Thus it represents the proper antiphon for the non-existent first vespers of St. Stephen.  The same plan is followed in regards to St. John, the Holy Innocents, and St. Thomas the Martyr.

Antiphons at the Memorial of the Nativity
In order to complete the memorials of the Nativity  through to the Circumcision (the octave day), the first two of this series will be repeated, on the eve and the day of St. Silvester.

A. Virgo hodie fidelis.  cf. Luke 1: 28

A. Lux orta est.  cf. Ps. 96: 11; Is. 9:2; Mat. 4: 16

A. Hodie intacta virgo
This antiphon is in metre and rhyme: 77 77 77, -a -a -b.

A. Gaudeamus omnes fideles

A. Nesciens mater

A. Virgo verbo concepit

A. Beatus venter

A. Virgo Dei genitrix

A. Pastores dicite

The office of compline appears also in the Psalter [379].

A. Natus est nobis hodie

A. Alleluya. Verbum caro factum est.

The day of St. Stephen
Minor Double Feast
Because the Nativity, as a principal double feast, has both vespers, and since a minor double feast must have at least one vespers, St. Stephen and the following days have no first vespers, but have second vespers.  The same principle, but at a lower level, affects the octave days of St. Stephen, St. John, and the Innocents, coming directly after the Circumcision.
The fact that ‘Stephen’ in Greek means ‘crown’ is reflected several times in this office: matins antiphons 5 and 9, versicle 2, responsories 4 and 8; antiphon on the Benedictus, responsories at terce and sext, and antiphon on the Magnificat.

Invit.  Christum natum

1 Ant. Beatus Stephanus (cf. Ps. 1:2-3)
The antiphons at matins are in modal order; antiphon 9 is in Mode VIII.
The antiphons carefully combine elements of the Stephen narrative with allusions to the associated psalms.

2 Ant. Constitutus a Deo (cf. Ps. 2:6, 11)
The responsories are not in modal order.

3 Ant. In tribulatione (cf. Ps. 3:2, 7-8)

Sermon of blessed Fulgentius
Trans. WR.  The first three lessons, more or less, appear in the Roman and Monastic breviaries; other English translations thus appear in The Anglican Breviary, The Roman Breviary (Stanbrook), the Roman Breviary (Bute), and Monastic Matins.

1 Resp. Hesterna die Dominus

2 Resp. Videbant omnes Stephanum.  cf. Acts 6:15, 8

3 Resp. Impetum fecerunt unanimes.  cf. Acts 7:56, 55; 6:8
The verse is in rhyme, as is the doxology. The rhyme is not preserved in the translation.

V. on the octave day: Et testes deposuerunt.  Acts 7:57

4 Ant. Lumine vultus tui.  cf. Ps. 4:7, 6, 9

5 Ant. Benedictionis tue Domine

6 Ant. O quam admirabile.  cf. Ps. 8:2, 6

In York Use a prose for St. Stephen appears at (second) vespers, whereas in Sarum Use a prose for St. Stephen appears the previous evening.  The York prose is ‘Conserva super hanc familiam’.

Ant. Benedictionis tue Domine (cf. Ps. 5:12)

4 Resp. Impii super justum
The V. is metered 8×6, rhyming a a a a b b. The translation reflects the metre but preserves the rhyme scheme only in the final two lines.
The responsory text is repeated at the antiphon on the Benedictus

V. on the octave day: Continuerunt aures suas.  Acts 7:56

Lesson 5
‘Quoniam quem dilicit Dominus corripit . . .’, Prov. 3:12

5 R3sp. Lapidabant Stephanum.  Acts 7:58-59

6 Resp. Lapides torrentes illi

7 Ant. In Domino Deo suo confisus.  cf. Ps. 10:2

8 Ant. Sine macula beatus Stephanus.  cf. Ps. 14:1-2

9 Ant. Domine virtus et leticia.  cf. Ps. 20:4-5
This antiphon is in metre (more or less pentameters) and rhyme (a a b b c c).
The translation is in prose.

V. Justus ut palma.  Ps. 91:13
‘Non dicitur ulteris.’ that is, the text ‘florebit in domo Domini’ is not said (see Versicle CANTUS 008117).
This versicle is from the Common of Martyrs.

Lesson 7: Homily of the Venerable Bede
Trans. WR

‘Et vos implete mensuram patrum vestrorum.’, Mat. 23:32
‘Ecce ego mitto ad vos prophetas, et sapientes, et scribas.’, Mat. 23:34

7 Resp. Intuens in celum.  cf. Acts 7:55
The repetition of text from the responsory into the verse (‘vidit gloriam Dei et ait’) is very unusual.

Lesson 8

‘A sanguine Abel . . . filii Barachie.’, Mat. 23:35; cf. II Para. 24:20

8 Resp. Patefacte sunt janue celi
The responsory text is repeated at the aantiphon of (second) vespers.

Lesson 9 c. f. Mat. 23:34ff.

‘Deus meus Deus meus ut quid me dereliquisti.’, Mat. 27:46; Mark 15:34

V. Ora pro nobis
This versicle is used widely on feasts of saints.  It is also found in the non-liturgical ‘Angelus’.

The antiphons at lauds represent an earlier chant tradition than those at matins.

1 Ant. Lapidaverunt Stephanum.  cf. Acts 7:58

2 Ant. Lapides torrentes

3 Ant. Adhesit anima mea.  cf. Ps. 62:9, 2

4 Ant. Stephanus vidit celos apertos.  cf. Acts 7:55

5 Ant. Ecce video celos apertos.  after Acts 7:55


Chap. Stephanus plenus gratia

Hymn. Sancte Dei preciose
Trans. J. M. Neale, The Hymnal Noted, #15.
This text is also used for resp. 9.

V. Justus germinabit.  cf. Hos. 14:6
This versicle is from the Common of Martyrs.

Ant. Impii super justum
The text is repeated from resp. 4.

Memorial of the Nativity
Beginning here memorial antiphons for the Nativity cycle through the nine antiphons, after which the first two are repeated again.


Resp. Gloria et honore.  Ps. 8:6-7


Chap. Cum autem esset Stephanus

Resp. Posuisti Domine.  after Ps. 20:4

Chap. Positis autem genibus

Resp. Justus ut palma.  after Ps. 91:13

Ant. Tecum principium
Within the Octave of Christmas, and indeed all the way through to the Octave of the Epiphany, the antiphons on the psalms at vespers (and the psalms themselves) are repeated from Christmas Day. This practice obtains in the Roman Breviary only within the Octave of Christmas.

A. Patefacte sunt janue celi
The text is repeated from responsory 8.

Memorial of the Nativity
Ant. Lux orta est super nos

Procession to the Altar of St. John
Resp. In medio ecclesie.  after Eccl. 15:5; Jer. 1:9

Prose. Nascitur ex Zebedeo
In CANTUS this chant appears only in the Sarum source GB-AB 20541.

V. Valde honorandus.  cf. John 13:25
This text is also used for the antiphon below.

Prayer. Ecclesiam tuam quesumus Domine

Ant. Valde honorandus. cf. John 13:25
This text is also used for the versicle above.

The day of St. John
Minor Double Feast

Invit. Adoremus regem apostolorum

Hymn. Bina celestis.
Trans. J. M. Neale, The Hymner: p. 114.

The antiphons at matins are in modal order; antiphon 9 is in mode IV.
The responsories are not in modal order.
Ants. 1-3 are drawn from the first lesson.

1 Ant. Johannes apostolus.  cf. Mat. 4:21
This text is taken from the first sentence of the first lesson (but note the variation, ‘electus’ and ‘dilectus’, ‘chosen’ and ‘beloved’).

2 Ant. Supra pectus.  cf. John 13:23
This text is taken from the second sentence of the first lesson.

3 Ant. Quasi unus de paradisi
This text is taken from the continuation of the second sentence of the first lesson.

Lesson 1.
According to Nathanael Bonwetch, Die Apokalypse Abrahams, Studien zur Geschichte der Theologia und der Kirche I (Leipzig: Deichert, 1897): 26, 378, these lessons are from a sermon of blessed Isidore the Bishop; they are based on ‘The Acts of John’.
Trans. WR

1 Resp. Valde honorandus est
The V. repeats the text of ant. 1.

2 Resp. Hic est discipulus.  John 21:24
(The V. in the Roman Use repeats the text of ant. 2.)

3 Resp. Iste est Johannes
The verses ‘Johannes is theologus’ and ‘Gloria sit altissimo’ are in rhymed hexameters.  Presumably the verse ‘Valde honorandus’ is the original verse for this responsory.

. . . nisi fit solemnitas sacerdotis‘  The precise meaning of this phrase is not clear.  It would seem that the priest who will be celebrating the principal mass at the high altar should not sing the verse.

V. Valde honorandus (see Resp. 1)

4 Ant. In ferventis olei dolium

5 Ant. Propter insuperabilem

6 Ant. Occurrit beato Johanni

4 Resp. In illa die

5 Resp. Ecce puer meus.  Is. 42:1

Lesson 6
‘Non veniat michi pes superbie . . .’, Ps. 35:12

6 R. Apparuit caro suo
This text is found at the end of Lesson 4; it is used in the following antiphon as well.
Here there is a variation (‘me’ for ‘meus’).

7 Ant. Apprauit caro suo
This text is found at the end of lesson 4; it is used in the preceding responsory as well.

8 Ant. Expandens manus suas
This text is found near the end of lesson 5.

9 Ant. Domine suscipe me
This text is take from the middle of lesson 6.

Lesson 7. Homily of the Venerable Bede
Trans. WR. Another English translation appears in Lawrence T. Martin and David Hurst, Bede The Venerable: Homilies on the Gospel Book One: Advent to Lent I (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1991): 1.9.
‘Sequere me.’, John 21:19

7 Resp. Sic eum volo manere.  John 21:22

8 Resp. Diligebat autem eum Jesus
The text comes from lesson 8.

Lesson 9
‘Non (inquit Dominus) eum volo consummari donec veniam.’, c. f. John 21:23

1 Ant. Hic est discipulis ille.  after JOhn 21:24

2 Ant. Hic est discipulis meus,  after John 21:22

3 Ant. Ecce puer meus electus.  after Is. 42:1

4 Ant. Sunt de hic stantibus.  after Mat. 16:28

5 Ant. Sic eum volo manere.  John 21:22

Chap. Qui timet Deum faciet bona

Ant. Iste est Johannes
This text also appears in resp. 3 above.

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of St. Stephen
Ant. Sepelierunt Stephanum


Resp. In omnem terram.  Ps. 18:5

Chap. Cibavit illum Dominus pane vite

Resp. Constitues eos principes.  df. Ps. 44:17

Chap. In medio ecclesie

Resp. Nimis honoratis sunt.  after Ps. 138:17

Ant. In medio ecclesie.  Eccl. 15:5

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of St. Stephen
Beginning here the memorial antiphons for St. Stephen cycle through Tu principatum, (memorial at second vespers of the Nativity), followed by the psalm-antiphons of lauds, and then those of matins, continuing as far as the second or third antiphon of matins, at lauds of St. Silvester.

Procession of the Boys
Resp. Centum quadraginta quattuor milia

Prose. Sedentem in superne majestatis arce
In CANTUS this chant appears only in the Sarum source GB-AB 20541.
This prose appears in the York Use, where it is sung after the ninth responsory of matins.

It will be noted that the liquescents that appear in the texted phrases are not consistently reflected in the textless repetitions–see the phrases ‘Sancte . . .’ and ‘Cum illis . . .’.  however, comparing the repetitions of those melodic phrases, one can see the consistency that appears in the textless melismas.  As noted elsewhere, in the Sarum notatio

n a liquescent is in some instances the softened form of a ‘real’ note, and in other cases it is more like an interpolated ‘ghost’ note.

Prayer.  Deus cujus hodierna die preconium innocentes martyres

‘. . . et omnes pueri ex utraque parte chori . . .’
While the boys take the senior positions for this day, it is implied from the rubric at the 7th lesson (below), and supported by the lack of any rubric in the missal, that the boys do not take the sacerdotal role in the mass.

‘. . . a duobus vel tribus, extra regulam.’  ‘extra regulam‘ would appear to refer to the normative ‘duo clerici de secunda forma’ (see p. 332).

Ant. Princeps ecclesie

V. Adjutorium nostrum.  Ps. 123:8

V. Sit nomen Domini benedictum.  Ps. 112:2


Memorial of the Holy Innocents
Ant. Innocentes pro Christo

Prayer.  Deus cujus hodierna die preconium

The day of the Holy Innocents
Minor Double Feast

Invit. Venite adoremus Dominum
This Invitatory is also used on the Feasts of Relics and of All Saints.

The antiphons at matins are in modal order; antiphon 9 is in mode IV.
1 Ant. Herodes videns.  after Mat. 2:16

2 Ant. Christus infans non depexit

3 Ant. Arridebat parvulus

The lessons are attributed to a Bishop Saint Severin, though which of the several saints of that name is unclear.
According to D. Petri Chrysologi, Archiepiscopi Ravennatis . . . opus Homiliarum (Paris, 1585), the ascription to Severin is incorrect, and the true author is Peter Chrysologus: “Qui non recte tamen D. Severini titulo circunfertur”. 383. Ser PL-LII:604-607, Homilia 38; PL-XCV:1174-75
Trans. WR. Another English translation by Ganss appears in Fathers of the Church 17: Saint Peter Chrysologus, Selected Sermons:254-259.
‘Herodes enim videns . . . finibus ejus.’, after Mat. 2:16

1 Resp. Sub altare Dei

2 Resp. Sub throno Dei

3 Resp. Dignus a dignis laudatur
The text is taken from lesson 4, towards the end.

4 Ant. Norunt infantes
This text is taken from the middle of lesson 4.

5 Ant. Erigitur itaque infantium
This text is taken from lesson 4, towards the end.

6 Ant. Dignus a dignis laudatur

Lesson 4
According to Susan Boynton (1998) this sermon is by Pseudo Chrysostom
Trans. WR
Antiphons 4-6 are taken from this text.

4 Resp. Effuderunt sanguinem sanctorum

Lesson 5
Antiphon 7 and responsory 6 are taken from this text.
‘Vox in Rama . . . quia non sunt.’, Mat. 2:18, after Jer. 31:15

5 Resp. Isti sunt sancti.  The V. text also appears in resp. 2 above.

6 Resp. Norunt infantes
The text of the responsory is from Lesson 4; the text of the verse is from towards the end of Lesson 5.

7 Ant. Dicunt infantes Domino

8 Ant. Licuit sanguine loqui.  See resp. 6 above.  The text is taken from lesson 5.

9 Ant. Vindica Domine sanguinem

V. Justorum anime.  after Sap. 3:1

Lesson 7. Homily of the Venerable Bede
Trans. WR. Another English translation appears in Lawrence T. Martin and David Hurst, Bede The Venerable: Homilies on the Gospel Book One: Advent to Lent (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1991): 1.10.
‘. . . in omnibus finibus ejus . . .’, Mat. 2:16

‘Sive vivimus Domino . . . Domini sumus.’, Rom. 14:8

7 Resp. Isti sunt sancti

‘Vox in Rama [id est] in excelsis . . . ploratus et ululatus . . .’, Mat. 2:18
‘. . . quia non sunt . . .’, Ma. 2:18
‘Cum vos persecuti . . . fugite in aliam . . .’, Mat. 10:23

8 Resp. Adoraverunt viventem


‘. . . tunc episcopus in sede sua . . .‘, of course, the Boy-Bishop.
1 Ant. Herodes iratus.  Mat. 2:16

2 Ant. A bimatu et infra.  after Mat. 2:16

3 Ant. Vox in Rama.  after Mat. 2:18

4 Ant. Sub throno Dei.  See Resp. 1 above.

5 Ant. Laudes reddant pueri
This antiphon appears in only 2 non-Sarum sources in CANTUS.
The typical antiphon in this location is ‘Cantabant sancti canticum’, 439.

Chap. Vidi supra montem Syon

Ant. Hi sunt qui cum mulieribus.  Apoc. 14:4

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of Saint Stephen

Memorial of St. John
Beginning here the memorial antiphons for St .John cycle through Valde honorandus, (memorial at second vespers of St. Stephen), followed by the psalm-antiphons of lauds, and then those of matins, continuing as far as the second or third antiphon of matins, at lauds of St. Stephen.


Resp. Letamini in Domino.  Ps. 31:12


Chap. Hi sunt qui cum mulieribus

Unusually, the 4th antiphon of lauds is selected here, rather than the fifth.  It would appear that the association of ‘Laudes’ in the fifth antiphon is intended as a direct connection to the ‘Lauds’ psalms, 148-150, and therefore is no particularly apt for the None.

Chap. Hi empti sunt ex omnibus

Ant. Ecce vidi Agnum stantem.  after Apoc. 14:1

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of Saint Stephen

Memorial of St. John

Procession to the Altar of St. Thomas.
Resp. Jacet granum
Text: see the final sentence of lesson 5 for St. Thomas, p. 450.
Another translation, by F. G. Gilliat Smith, appears in The Dublin Review, CXIV (January 1894): 32 (while it maintains the metre, it includes two extra lines):
The wheaten grain lies prone before the flail,
The righteous man, hewn down by impious swords,
Thereby exchanging squalid earth for heaven.
The vineyard’s keeper falls beside the vine.
The captain on the battle-field lies low,
The husbandman within his threshing floor.
From squalid earth, Christ’s martyr mounts to heaven.

Prose. Clangat pastor
This prose is in rhyme, each line ending ‘ea’, like the responsory.
In CANTUS this chant appears only in the Sarum source GB-AB 20541.
Another translation, by F. G. Gilliat Smith, appears in The Dublin Review, CXIV (January 1894): 32:
Sound ye the gladsome trump of victory,
For this, that God’s own vineyard might be free,
Which, clad in human flesh, himself had freed
By dying on the purple blood-stained cross.
The savage beast of prey becomes a lamb,
The shepherd’s cruel death converts his foe,
Christ’s marble pavement flows all red with blood.
Thus Thomas wins the martyr’s laurel crown,
And like the wheaten grain, from husk set free,
Is garnered in the storehouse of the King.

Prayer.  Deus pro cujus ecclesia

Memorial of St. Thomas

Ant. Pastor cesus
Another translation, by F. G. Gilliat Smith, appears in The Dublin Review, CXIV (January 1894): 33:
The watchful pastor, slain amid his flock,
Their peace procures, by pouring out his blood.
O joyous sorrow ! O most mournful joy !
The sheep draw breath, the shepherd lyeth low,
And weeping Mother church applauds a son
Who, by his death a victor, mounts to Heaven.

Antiphons at the Memorial of the Holy Innocents

‘. . . et postea de nocturnis . . .’  In fact no antiphons of matins are needed for the memorials of the Holy Innocents.

Ant. Laverunt stolas suas.  after Apoc. 7:14

Ant. Ambulabunt mecum in albis.  after Apoc. 3:4, 5

Ant. Cantabant sancti.  cf. Apoc. 14:3
This mode VIII antiphon has the range associated with mode VII.  The register may reflect the text: ‘sedem Dei et Agni’ = high; ‘terra’ = low.
While the translations have ‘sung’ (past participle) following the usage of KJV and D-R, normal English grammar would have ‘sang’ (simple past tense).

St. Thomas the Martyr
Minor Double Feast
The image is a stock image for bishops.

Thomas Becket, Chancellor of England and later Archbishop of Canterbury ,was assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral on this day in 1180.  He was canonized in 1173. The translation of his relics into the new shrine in Canterbury Cathedral took place on July 7, 1220, just a few months after the laying of the foundation stones of the new Salisbury Cathedral.  In 1536 Henry VIII suppressed the feasts of St. Thomas; the shrine was destroyed in 1538.  Today a single candle burns at the former location of the shrine.

For historical background, see:
Analecta Hymnica XIII: 92.
Denis Stevens ‘Music in Honor of St. Thomas of Canterbury’, Musical Quarterly 56 (1970): 311-48.
H. Husmann, ‘Uberlieferung der Thomas-Offizien’, Organicae voces : Festschrift Joseph Smuts van Waesberghe (Amsterdam, 1963), 87-8.
Andrew Hughes, ‘Chants in the Rhymed Office for St. Thomas of Canterbury’, Early Music XVI (1988):185-201.
Andrew Hughes, ‘British Rhymed Offices’, Susan Rankin and David Hiley, eds, Music in the Medieval English Liturgy (Oxford: Clarendon, 1993): 275-8.
Kay Brainerd Slocum, Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004).
Andrew Hughes, (ed Helsen and Getz) The Becket Offices: Paradigms for Liturgical Research 2 Vols. (Lions Bay, BC:The Institute of Medieval Music, 2014).

The author of this 0ffice appears to be Benedict, Abbot of Peterborough (d. 1194), a monk of Christ Church, Canterbury. This English office [TH21] ‘was widespread over almost the whole of Europe.’ (Hughes, ‘British Rhymed Offices’:275.) Its original form followed the monastic order of 13 antiphons and 12 responsories at matins. The secular form found here uses the first 8 antiphons of the monastic cursus (the ninth, Felix locus, does not appear in the monastic cursus), and uses responsories 1-3, 6-8, and 10-12 of the monastic cursus.

Owain Tudor Edwards (Matins, Laud and Vespers for St. David’s Day, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1990:161) determines that the Sarum form of this office was iin existence by 1174, and that this form was probably used already in December 1173.

The chants of this office are entirely in metre and rhyme: the responsories and prose, and the principal (final) antiphon of each hour are all in a tetrameter [/ . / . / . . / . .] [10pp]. The other antiphons are in the goliardic metre [7pp6p]. The invitatory is in a pentameter [/ . / . / . / . / . .] [11pp].

Chant-translations © 2018 by Matthew Carver. Used with permission.

An edition and translation of the text of the office appears in Sherry Reames, ‘Liturgical Offices for the Cult of St. Thomas Becket’, Thomas Head, ed., Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology (New York: Routledge, 2001):561-593.  This article also includes notes that explain allusions in the text.

Invit. Assunt Thome martyris solennia

Hymn. Martyr Dei
In the York Use the hymn is Deus tuorum militum.

The antiphons at matins are in modal order, 1-8 + 1. Antiphons 1-8 are biographical; the ninth is a prayer.

1 Ant. Summo sacerdotio

2 Ant. Monachus sub clerico

3 Ant. Cultor agri Domini.  cf. Cant. 2:15

The Passion of St. Thomas, Martyr
John of Salisbury (John of Chartres, d. 1180) was secretary to Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, and then to his successor, Thomas Becket. He was in Canterbury at the time of Becket’s assassination (1174), and was Bishop of Chartres 1176-1180. John of Salisbury’s account appears in ‘Vita et Passio S. Thomae martyris, auctore Joanne’, James Cragie Robertson, ed., Materials for the History of Thomas Becket II (London: Longman & Co., 1876):299-352, and in Inos Biffi, ed., Vita Anselmi : Giovanni di Salisbury, Anselmo e Becket, due vite (Milan 1990):151-212. A translation is available in Ronald E. Pepin, Anselm and Becket. Two Saints’ Lives by John of Salisbury (Toronto, 2009):78-95.
The breviary text is abstracted from and based upon John’s Vita Thomae.
Trans. WR.

1 Resp. Studens livor

2 Resp.  Thomas manum mittit

. . . lapis vivus . . .’, c. f. I Pet. 2:4-5
‘Neque enim aurum tam anxia examinatum exuri potuit. . .’, c. f. Wisd. 3:5-6; Zech. 13:9
‘. . . vel domus supra firmam petram fundata convelli.’, c. f. Mat. 7:25

Resp. Jacet Granum
In the York and Herefored Uses the responsory is ‘Lapis iste’.

4 Ant. Nec in agros

5 Ant. Exulat vir optimus

6 Ant. Exulantis predia

Lesson 5

‘Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.’, Ps. 118:26; Mat. 21:9

4 Resp. Ex summa rerum
In the York and Hereford Uses the responsory is ‘Post sex annos’.

Lesson 5
‘Turbati sunt igitur insipientes corde . . .’, c. f. Ps. 75:6
‘Si me queritis : sinite hos abire.’, John 18:8
Part of this Lesson is used for the text of the responsory ‘Jacet granum’.

‘Sic itaque granum frumenti . . . palatio commutavit.’ See resp. Jacet granum, p. 435.

5 Resp. Mundi florem
In the York and Hereford Uses the responsory is ‘Ex summa rerum’.
Another translation, by F. G. Gilliat Smith, appears in The Dublin Review, CXIV (January 1894): 35:
The earth’s fair flower by the earth is crushed,
But hush thee Rachel cease thy sad lament,
For when the Martyr sealed his faith in death
A second Abel blossomed in the land.
V. The shattered casket, and his blood poured out
Filled heaven with a mighty voice of prayer
When Holy Thomas, dying, sealed his faith.

Lesson 6

‘. . . diviserunt sibi vestimenta sua . . .’, Ps. 22:18; Mat. 27:35
‘Vox in Rama audita est, ploratus et ululatus multus’, Jer. 31:15; Mat. 2:18.

6 Resp. Christe Jesu per Thome
In the York and Hereford Uses the Responsory is ‘Jacet granum’.

7 Ant. Sathane satellites

8 Ant. Strictis Thomas ensibus

9 Ant. Felix locus
In the York and Hereford Uses the antiphon is ‘Hosti pandit ostium’.

Lesson 7
Homily of blessed Gregory.
Trans. WR
Other English Translations are found in David Hurst, Gregory the Great: Forty Gospel Homilies (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1990): #15, and in Toal 2:316.

7 Resp. Thome cedunt
In the York and Hereford Uses the responsory is ‘Mundi florem’.

8 Resp. Novis fulget
In the York and Hereford Uses the responsory is ‘Christe Jesu per Thome’.

Lesson 9

‘. . . et regnum adversus regnum . . . seipsum fieret divisum . . .’, c. .f Luke 11:17
‘. . . Venient ad te . . . pedum tuorum.’, after Is. 60:14.

”. . . (secundum Dyonisium) . . . ‘, Dionysius Exiguus, a 6th century monk of Scythia Minor, inverntor of the ‘Anno Domini’ era.

9 Resp. Jesu bone per Thome
In the York Use the responsory is ‘Ferro pressus’.

Another translation, by F. G. Gilliat Smith, appears in The Dublin Review, CXIV (January 1894): 36:
Lord Jesus, by the merits of thy Saint
Forgive us, we beseech thee, all our sins.
O thou who bade the sleeping maid arise,
Who, at the city gate, called back to life
The widow’s son, and from the very grave
Bade Lazarus come forth and live again,
Visit the home, the gateway and the tomb
And raise us from the triple death of sin
V. And in Thy wonted pity purify
Our souls by thought or word or deed defiled.
O raise us from the triple death of sin.
So shall we praise and bless the Triune God,
Raised from the bitter threefold death of sin.

V. Ora pro nobis beate Thoma

The antiphons at lauds are in modal order, 1-6.

1 Ant. Granum cadit (cf. Joh. 12:24-25; Mark 14:3)

2 Ant. Totus orbis martyris

3. Ant. Aqua Thome

4 Ant. Ad Thome memoriam

5 Ant. Tu per Thome sanguinem

Ant. Opem nobis o Thoma

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of St. Stephen

Memorial of St. John

Memorial of the Holy Innocents
Beginning here the memorial antiphons for the Holy Innocents cycle through Innocentes, (memorial at second vespers of St. John) and the three memorial antiphons, followed by the psalm-antiphons of lauds, continuing as far as the fourth or fifth antiphon of lauds, at lauds of the octave of St. John.






Ant. Salve Thoma virga justicie
In the Hereford Use the antiphon is ‘Felix locus felix’.

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of St. Stephen

Memorial of St. John

Memorial of the Innocents

Sixth day in the Nativity of the Lord
At Matins
The Sarum Ordinal, BL-Harley-1001:17v, makes clear that there are nine antiphons and nine psalms this day.

Sermon from the Venerable Bede
Trans. WR

Lesson 1
‘Fotinianos’ (Photinianus, Photinus), 4th c., denied the Holy Spirit and held that Jesus was the son of Joseph.

Resp. Hodie nobis celorum.
Presumably on this day there would be no special ceremonial at the singing of the verse ‘Gloria in excelsis Deo’ as there was on Christmas day.

Lesson 2
‘Et benedixit illis Symeon . . . contradicetur’, Luke 2:34.
‘Ego sum resurrectio . . . non morietur in eternum.’, Joh. 25-26.

‘. . . lapis offensionis et petra scandali . . . verbo nec credunt.’, after 1 Pet. 2:8.
‘Si non venissem . . . non habent de peccato suo.’, after Joh. 15:22.
‘Chisti bonus odor . . . in his qui pereunt’, II Cor. 2:15.

Lesson 3
‘Nam de secta hac . . . ei contradicitur.’, Acts 28:22.
‘Nos enim [(inquit)] . . . gentibus autem stulticiam.’, I Cor. 1:23.
‘Et tuam ipsius animam pertransibit gladius.’, Luke 2:35.

Chap. Quanto tempore heres parvulus est

Ant. Dum medium silentium.  after Sap. 18:14-15
Compare the Officium for this day.

Prayer. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus dirige actus nostros

Memorial of the Nativity
The memorial of the Nativity at lauds seems to be redundant seeing that the sixth day is treated as part of the Octave of Christmas. Nevertheless it appears consistently in the Sarum breviaries and also in the missal. A similar indication appears in Breviarium Romanum 1568:213.  In the 1544 Sarum Portiforium, which, deleting the Feast of St. Thomas the Martyr, includes ‘the Fifth Day of Christmas’, similar memorials appear at Lauds and Vespers.

Memorial of St. Stephen

Memorial of St. John

Memorial of the Innocents

Memorial of St. Thomas
Beginning here the memorial antiphons for St. Thomas cycle through Pastor cesus, (memorial at second vespers of the Holy Innocents) and the psalm-antiphons of lauds, and continuing with the antiphons of matins as far as the second or third antiphon of matins, at lauds of the octave of the Holy Innocents.


Terce Sext None

If the Sixth Day is a Sunday:
Lesson 1. Sermon of blessed Maximus
See PL-LVII:249-252. The ascription to Maximus appears doubtful.
Trans. WR

Lesson 5.
Sermon 11 of the tempore, old series; sermon 127 of the new series.
Trans. WR

Lesson 6
‘Spiritus Sanctus superveniet in te . . . Filius Dei.’, Luke 1:35


Terce Sext None

[Vespers of the Sixth Day of Christmas is omitted because of the Feast of St. Silvester.]

Saint Silvester
The image is a stock image for bishops.

Prayer. Da quesumus omnipotens Deus : ut beati Silvestri

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of St. Stephen

Memorial of St. John

Memorial of the Innocents

Memorial of St. Thomas


Lesson 1
Trans. WR

Sermon of blessed Fulgentius
Trans. WR
‘. . . nunciate [(ait propheta)] diem de die salutare ejus.’ Ps. 95:2

‘. . . sponsus procedens de thalamo suo.’, Ps. 18:6.

Lesson 7. Homily of blessed Gregory
Trans. WR
Another translation appears in David Hurst, Gregory the Great, Forty Gospel Homilies (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1990): #18, p. 126.

V. Ora pro nobis beate Silvester

Memorial of the Nativity

Memorial of St. Stephen

Memorial of St. John

Memorial of the Innocents

Memorial of St. Thomas





Vigil of the Circumcision
The image represents the circumcision of Christ.

Ant. Qui de terra est.  after John 3:31-33

Prayer. Deus qui nobis nati Salvatoris diem

Compline appears also in the Psalter, [380].

Ant. Nato Domino.  after Apoc. 7:10

January 1: Circumcision
Minor Double Feast
The image is of the circumcision of Christ.
Many parts of this feast are repeated from Christmas, the Circumcision also being the Octave Day of Christmas.

I have not found an explanation as to why memorials of the octaves of St. Stephen, St. John, the Holy Innocents, and St. Thomas are not made on this feast, seeing that all those feasts are minor doubles.  The exception, a memorial of St. Stephen at second vespers, is on account of its being the memorial of first vespers of the octave of St. Stephen.

1 Ant. Dominus dixit ad me.  Ps. 2:7
This antiphon is repeated from matins of Chrstimas Day.

2 Ant. In sole posuit tabernaculum suum.  Ps. 19:5
This text appears also in a gradual for Saturday in the Ember Days of Advent.

3. Ant. Elevamini porte eternales.  Ps. 24:7

Lessons of the Venerable Bede
Trans. for this edition by Lawrence Martin, 2012 (used with permission), edited WR.

Lesson 1
‘. . . Deo credidisset, reputatumque ei esset ad justitiam . . .’, Rom. 4:3; Gen. 15:6
‘. . . signum accepit circuncisionis . . . que est in preputio.’, Rom. 4:11
‘. . . ab omni inquinamento carnis et spiritus . . .’, II Cor. 7:1

1 Resp. In principio erat Verbum.  John 1:1-4

Lesson 2
‘Nisi quis renatus . . . regnum Dei . . .’, John 3:5
‘Masculus cujus preputii . . . pactum meum irritum fecit.’, Gen. 17:14
‘. . . justus ex fide vivit . . .’, Rom. 1:17
‘. . . sine fide impossibile est placare Deo.’, Heb. 11:6
2 Resp. Benedictus qui venit.  Ps. 117:26-27; 22

Lesson 3
‘. . . in iniquitatibus concepti . . .’, Ps. 50:7
‘. . . peccatum mundi tolleret . . .’, John 1:29
‘. . . primus octava die circuncisionem accepisse perhibetur.’, cf Gen 21:4

3 Resp. Ecce Agnus Dei.  John 1:30, 27, 32

4 Ant. Speciosus forma. Ps. 44:3

5 Ant. Suscepimus Deus. Ps. 47:10

6 Ant. Homo natus est in ea. Ps. 86:5

Lesson 4
‘Quicunque enim baptizati sumus . . . in novitate vite ambulemus.’, Rom 6:3-4
‘Si enim credimus . . . adducet cum eo.’, I Thess. 4:14
‘Filii seculi hujus nubunt . . . cum filii sunt resurrectionis.’, Luke 20:34-36

4 Resp. Nesciens mater virgo virum

Lesson 5

‘. . . quia lex per Moysen . . . per Jesum Christum facta est.’, John 1:17

5 Resp. Continet in gremio

Lesson 6
‘Ex operibus legis . . . cognitio peccati.’, Rom. 3:20
‘Usque ad legem . . . non erit in mundo.’, Rom. 5:13
‘Lex autem subintravit : ut abndaret delictum.’, Rom. 5:20
‘Nam concupiscentiam . . . est in me omnem concupiscentiam.’, Rom. 7:7-8
‘. . . ubi abundavit delictum : superabundavit et gratia.’, Rom. 5:20
‘. . . quare petrinis ad circuncidendum . . . ‘, see Jos. 5:2-3
‘. . . petra erat Cristus.’, I Cor. 10:4
‘Et super hanc [(inquit)] petram edificabo ecclesiam meam.’, Mat. 16:18

6 Resp. Confirmatum est cor virginis

7 Ant. Exultabunt omnia ligna silvarum. Ps. 95:12-13 (Old Roman)

8 Ant. In principio et ante secula. after John 1:1

9 Ant. Ante luciferum genitus. cf. Ps. 109:3

V. Notum fecit Dominus. Ps. 97:2

Lesson 7
Homily of the Venerable Bede
Trans. WR. Another English translation appears in Lawrence T. Martin and David Hurst, Bede The Venerable: Homilies on the Gospel I (Kalamazoo, Cistercian Publications, 1991): #1.11.

‘. . . Et posquam consummati sunt . . . in utero conciperetur.’, Luke 2:21
‘Quia ubi venit plenitudo temporis . . . ut adoptionem filiorum reciperemus.’, Ga. 4:4

7 Resp. O Regem celi

8 Resp. Congratulamini michi. V: Luke 1:48

Lesson 9
‘Nisi quis renatus fuerit . . . introire in regnum Dei . . .’, John 3:5
‘Masculus cujus preputii caro circuncisa . . quia pactum meum irritum fecit . . .’, Gen. 17:14

1 Ant. O admirabile commercium

2 Ant. Quando natus est ineffabiliter. cf. Ps. 71:6
This antiphon is used at the memorial of St. Mary on Sundays from the Octave of St. Stephen to the Purification.  It is related to the antiphon ‘Quando concepta est virgo sacratissima’ for the Conception of St. Mary and ‘Quando natus est virgo sacratissima’, but it is by no means the same.  (Frere, in his index indicates that they are the same.)  (See also ant. 4 below.)

3 Ant. Rubum quem viderat
This antiphon is used at the memorial of St. Mary on ferias and feasts of 3 lessons from the Octave of St. Stephen to the Purification.

4 Ant. Germinavit radix Jesse

Note the use of a transposed form of the ending of Ant. 2 for ‘te laudamus Deus noster’.

5 Ant. Ecce Maria genuit. after John 1:29

Ant. Mirabile mysterium declaratur



‘. . . cum oratione hujus diei.’ i.e. the Circumcision.


Unusually, the fourth antiphon of lauds is selected, rather than the fifth.  One possible reason is that the fifth antiphon includes ‘alleluya’, which may seem out of place in ordinary times of the year.  Note also that the same selection of antiphons is used for the weekly commemoration of Blessed Mary until Advent.

Ant. Magnum hereditatis mysterium

Memorial of St. Stephen

The antiphon, Tu principatum, on the eve of the octave, repeats the memorial antiphon from the eve of St. Stephen.

Octave of St. Stephen

Lessons of blessed Maximus
These lessons are also attributed to Leo I and to Pseudo Augustine.
Trans. WR

1 Resp. Stephanus servus Dei. cf. Acts 7:55
This item is unusual in that the verse repeats extensively the text of the responsory.

Lesson 2 (4)
‘Domine [(inquit)] ne statuas illis hoc peccatum.’, Acts 8:59

Lesson 6
Si enim [(inquit)] dimiseritis . . . peccata vestra.’, Mat. 6:14


Memorial of St. John

Memorial of the Innocents

Memorial of St. Thomas

Memorial of St. Mary



Memorial of St. John

The antiphon, Valde honorandus, on the eve of the octave, repeats the memorial antiphon from the eve of St.John.

Memorial of the Innocents

Memorial of St. Thomas

Memorial of St. Mary

On the Octave of St. John

Trans. WR

1 Resp. Hic est beatissimus evangelista. cf. John 21:20

2. Resp. Qui vicerit faciam illum. after Apoc. 3:12; 2:7


Memorial of the Innocents

Memorial of St. Thomas

Memorial of St. Mary



Memorial of the Holy Innocents

The antiphon, Innocentes pro Christo, on the eve of the octave, repeats the memorial antiphon from the eve of the Holy Innocents.

Memorial of St. Thomas

Memorial of St. Mary

The Octave of the Holy Innocents

Trans. WR. Another English translation is to be found at

1 Resp. Cantabant sancti canticum novum


Memorial of St. Thomas

Memorial of St. Mary



Memorial of St. Thomas

The antiphon, Pastor cesus, the final memorial of the octave of St. Thomas, repeats the memorial antiphon from the eve of St. Thomas.

Memorial of St. Edward
Prayer. Deus qui unigenitum Filium tuum

Memorial of St. Mary

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